A total of 2011 patients were treated with OPANA ER in the Phase 2/3 controlled and open-label clinical trials. The clinical trials consisted of patients with moderate to severe chronic pain and post surgical pain.
The adverse reactions are presented in the following manner: most common, common, and less common adverse reactions.
The most common adverse drug reactions (≥10%) reported at least once by patients treated with OPANA ER in the clinical trials were nausea, constipation, dizziness (exc. vertigo), vomiting, pruritus, somnolence, headache, sweating increased, and sedation.
The common (≥1% — <10%) adverse drug reactions reported at least once by patients treated with OPANA ER in the clinical trials organized by MedDRA’s (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities) System Organ Class were:
Eye disorders: vision blurred
Gastrointestinal disorders: diarrhea, abdominal pain, dyspepsia
General disorders and administration site conditions : dry mouth, appetite decreased, fatigue, lethargy, weakness, pyrexia, dehydration, weight decreased, edema
Nervous system disorders: insomnia
Psychiatric disorders: anxiety, confusion, disorientation, restlessness, nervousness, depression
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: dyspnea
Vascular disorders: flushing and hypertension
Other less common adverse reactions known with opioid treatment that were seen <1% in the OPANA ER trials include the following in alphabetical order.
Abdominal distention, agitation, allergic reactions, bradycardia, central nervous system depression, clamminess, depressed level of consciousness, dermatitis, difficult micturition, dysphoria, euphoric mood, feeling jittery, hallucination, hot flashes, hypersensitivity, hypotension, hypoxia, ileus, mental impairment, mental status changes, miosis, oxygen saturation decreased, palpitation, postural hypotension, respiratory depression, respiratory distress, respiratory rate decreased, syncope, tachycardia, urinary retention, urticaria, and visual disturbances.
Acute overdosage with OPANA ER is characterized by respiratory depression (a decrease in respiratory rate and/or tidal volume, Cheyne-Stokes respiration, cyanosis), extreme somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, constricted pupils and sometimes bradycardia and hypotension. In severe overdosage, apnea, circulatory collapse, cardiac arrest and death may occur.
OPANA ER may cause miosis, even in total darkness. Pinpoint pupils are a sign of opioid overdose but are not pathognomonic (e.g., pontine lesions of hemorrhagic or ischemic origin may produce similar findings). Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen with hypoxia in overdose situations (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Central Nervous System).
In the treatment of OPANA ER overdosage, primary attention should be given to the re-establishment of a patent airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation. Supportive measures (including oxygen and vasopressors) should be employed in the management of circulatory shock and pulmonary edema accompanying overdose as indicated. Cardiac arrest or arrhythmias may require cardiac massage or defibrillation. Elimination or evacuation of gastric contents may be necessary in order to eliminate unabsorbed drug. Before attempting treatment by gastric emptying or activated charcoal, care should be taken to secure the airway.
The opioid antagonist naloxone hydrochloride is a specific antidote against respiratory depression, which may result from overdosage or unusual sensitivity to opioids including OPANA ER. Therefore, an appropriate dose of naloxone hydrochloride should be administered (usual initial adult dose 0.4 mg-2 mg) preferably by the intravenous route and simultaneously with efforts at respiratory resuscitation. Nalmefene is an alternative pure opioid antagonist, which may be administered as a specific antidote to respiratory depression resulting from opioid overdose. Since the duration of action of OPANA ER may exceed that of the antagonist, the patient should be kept under continued surveillance and repeated doses of the antagonist should be administered according to the antagonist labeling as needed to maintain adequate respiration.
In patients receiving OPANA ER, opioid antagonists should not be administered in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to OPANA ER overdose. They should be administered cautiously to persons who are known, or suspected to be, physically dependent on any opioid agonist including OPANA ER. In such cases, an abrupt or complete reversal of opioid effects may precipitate an acute abstinence syndrome. In an individual physically dependent on opioids, administration of the usual dose of the antagonist will precipitate an acute withdrawal syndrome. The severity of the withdrawal syndrome produced will depend on the degree of physical dependence and the dose of the antagonist administered. If respiratory depression is associated with muscular rigidity, administration of a neuromuscular blocking agent may be necessary to facilitate assisted or controlled ventilation. Muscular rigidity may also respond to opioid antagonist therapy.
OPANA ER Tablets are to be swallowed whole and are not to be broken, chewed, dissolved, or crushed. Taking broken, chewed, dissolved, or crushed OPANA ER Tablets leads to rapid release and absorption of a potentially fatal dose of oxymorphone.
Patients must not consume alcoholic beverages, or prescription or non-prescription medications containing alcohol, while on OPANA ER therapy. The co-ingestion of alcohol with OPANA ER may result in increased plasma levels and a potentially fatal overdose of oxymorphone.
OPANA ER is an opioid agonist and a Schedule II controlled substance with an abuse liability similar to morphine and other opioids.
OPANA ER , like morphine and other opioids used in analgesia, can be abused and is subject to criminal diversion.
OPANA ER tablets are to be swallowed whole, and are not to be broken, chewed, crushed or dissolved. Taking broken, chewed, crushed or dissolved OPANA ER tablets leads to the rapid release and absorption of a potentially fatal dose of oxymorphone.
While symmetric (same dose AM and PM), around-the-clock, every 12 hours dosing is appropriate for the majority of patients, some patients may benefit from asymmetric (different dose given in AM than in PM) dosing, tailored to their pain pattern. It is usually appropriate to treat a patient with only one extended-release opioid for around-the-clock therapy.
Selection of patients for treatment with OPANA ER should be governed by the same principles that apply to the use of other extended-release opioid analgesics (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE). As with any opioid drug product, it is necessary to adjust the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient’s prior analgesic treatment experience. Physicians should individualize treatment in every case (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION), using non-opioid analgesics, prn opioids and/or combination products, and chronic opioid therapy in a progressiveplan of pain management such as outlined by the World Health Organization, the American Pain Society and the Federation of State Medical Boards Model Guidelines. Healthcare professionals should follow appropriate pain management principles of careful assessment and ongoing monitoring (see BOXED WARNING).
In the selection of the initial dose of OPANA ER, attention should be given to the following:
- The total daily dose, potency and specific characteristics of the opioid the patient has been taking previously;
- The relative potency estimate used to calculate the equivalent oxymorphone dose needed;
- The patient’s degree of opioid tolerance;
- The age, general condition, and medical status of the patient;
- Concurrent non-opioid analgesic and other medications;
- The type and severity of the patient’s pain;
- The balance between pain control and adverse experiences;
- Risk factors for abuse, addiction or diversion, including a prior history of abuse, addiction or diversion.
The following dosing recommendations, therefore, can only be considered as suggested approaches to what is actually a series of clinical decisions over time in the management of the pain of each individual patient.
OPANA ER should be administered on an empty stomach, at least one hour prior to or two hours after eating.
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