Oxaliplatin (Page 4 of 9)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of oxaliplatin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Body as a whole:
angioedema, anaphylactic shock
Cardiovascular disorders:
QT prolongation leading to ventricular arrhythmias including fatal Torsade de Pointes
Central and peripheral nervous system disorders:
loss of deep tendon reflexes, dysarthria, Lhermitte’s sign, cranial nerve palsies, fasciculations, convulsion, Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS, also known as PRES).
Hearing and vestibular system disorders:
deafness

Infections:
septic shock, including fatal outcomes
Infusion reactions/hypersensitivity:
laryngospasm
Liver and Gastrointestinal system disorders:
severe diarrhea/vomiting resulting in hypokalemia, colitis (including Clostridium difficile diarrhea), metabolic acidosis; ileus; intestinal obstruction, pancreatitis; veno-occlusive disease of liver also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, and perisinusoidal fibrosis which rarely may progress.
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders:
rhabdomyolysis, including fatal outcomes
Platelet, bleeding, and clotting disorders:
immuno-allergic thrombocytopenia
prolongation of prothrombin time and of INR in patients receiving anticoagulants
Red Blood Cell disorders:
hemolytic uremic syndrome, immuno-allergic hemolytic anemia
Renal disorders:
acute tubular necrosis, acute interstitial nephritis and acute renal failure
Respiratory system disorders:
pulmonary fibrosis, and other interstitial lung diseases (sometimes fatal)
Vision disorders:
decrease of visual acuity, visual field disturbance, optic neuritis and transient vision loss (reversible following therapy discontinuation)

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

No specific cytochrome P-450-based drug interaction studies have been conducted. No pharmacokinetic interaction between 85 mg/m2 oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin has been observed in patients treated every 2 weeks. Increases of 5-fluorouracil plasma concentrations by approximately 20% have been observed with doses of 130 mg/m2 oxaliplatin dosed every 3 weeks. Because platinum-containing species are eliminated primarily through the kidney, clearance of these products may be decreased by coadministration of potentially nephrotoxic compounds; although, this has not been specifically studied [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )].

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy


Pregnancy Category D
Based on direct interaction with DNA, oxaliplatin may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of oxaliplatin in pregnant women. Reproductive toxicity studies in rats demonstrated adverse effects on fertility and embryo-fetal development at maternal doses that were below the recommended human dose based on body surface area. If this drug is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant and use effective contraception while receiving treatment with oxaliplatin.
Pregnant rats were administered oxaliplatin at less than one-tenth the recommended human dose based on body surface area during gestation days 1 to 5 (pre-implantation), 6 to 10, or 11 to 16 (during organogenesis). Oxaliplatin caused developmental mortality (increased early resorptions) when administered on days 6 to 10 and 11 to 16 and adversely affected fetal growth (decreased fetal weight, delayed ossification) when administered on days 6 to 10. Administration of oxaliplatin to male and female rats prior to mating resulted in 97% post-implantation loss in animals that received approximately one-seventh the recommended human dose based on the body surface area.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether oxaliplatin or its derivatives are excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from oxaliplatin, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

8.4 Pediatric Use


The effectiveness of oxaliplatin in children has not been established. Oxaliplatin has been tested in 2 Phase 1 and 2 Phase 2 trials in 235 patients ages 7 months to 22 years with solid tumors (see below) and no significant activity observed.
In a Phase 1/2 study, oxaliplatin was administered as a 2-hour intravenous infusion on Days 1, 8 and 15 every 4 weeks (1 cycle), for a maximum of 6 cycles, to 43 patients with refractory or relapsed malignant solid tumors, mainly neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma. Twenty-eight pediatric patients in the Phase 1 study received oxaliplatin at 6 dose levels starting at 40 mg/m2 with escalation to 110 mg/m². The dose limiting toxicity (DLT) was sensory neuropathy at the 110 mg/m2 dose. Fifteen patients received oxaliplatin at a dose of 90 mg/m2 intravenous in the Phase 2 portion of the study. At this dose, paresthesia (60%, G3/4: 7%), fever (40%, G3/4: 7%) and thrombocytopenia (40%, G3/4: 27%) were the main adverse reactions. No responses were observed.
In a second Phase 1 study, oxaliplatin was administered to 26 pediatric patients as a 2-hour intravenous infusion on day 1 every 3 weeks (1 cycle) at 5 dose levels starting at 100 mg/m2 with escalation to 160 mg/m2 , for a maximum of 6 cycles. In a separate cohort, oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 was administered on day 1 every 2 weeks, for a maximum of 9 doses. Patients had metastatic or unresectable solid tumors mainly neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroblastoma. No responses were observed. The DLT was sensory neuropathy at the 160 mg/m2 dose. Based on these studies, oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 as a 2-hour intravenous infusion on day 1 every 3 weeks (1 cycle) was used in subsequent Phase II studies. A dose of 85 mg/m2 on day 1 every 2 weeks was also found to be tolerable.
In one Phase 2 study, 43 pediatric patients with recurrent or refractory embryonal CNS tumors received oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 every 3 weeks for a maximum of 12 months in absence of progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity. In patients <10 kg the oxaliplatin dose used was 4.3 mg/kg. The most common adverse reactions reported were leukopenia (67%, G3/4: 12%), anemia (65%, G3/4: 5%), thrombocytopenia (65%, G3/4: 26%), vomiting (65%, G3/4: 7%), neutropenia (58%, G3/4: 16%) and sensory neuropathy (40%, G3/4: 5%). One partial response was observed.
In a second Phase 2 study, 123 pediatric patients with recurrent solid tumors, including neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma or peripheral PNET, ependymoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, hepatoblastoma, high grade astrocytoma, Brain stem glioma, low grade astrocytoma, malignant germ cell tumor and other tumors of interest received oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 every 3 weeks for a maximum of 12 months or 17 cycles. In patients < 12 months old the oxaliplatin dose used was 4.3 mg/kg. The most common adverse reactions reported were sensory neuropathy (52%, G3/4: 12%), thrombocytopenia (37%, G3/4: 17%), anemia (37%, G3/4: 9%), vomiting (26%, G3/4: 4%), ALT increased (24%, G3/4: 6%), AST increased (24%, G3/4: 2%), and nausea (23%, G3/4: 3%). Two partial responses were observed. The pharmacokinetic parameters of ultrafiltrable platinum have been evaluated in 105 pediatric patients during the first cycle. The mean clearance in pediatric patients estimated by the population pharmacokinetic analysis was 4.7 L/h. The inter-patient variability of platinum clearance in pediatric cancer patients was 41%. Mean platinum pharmacokinetic parameters in ultrafiltrate were Cmax of 0.75 ± 0.24 mcg/mL, AUC0-48 of 7.52 ± 5.07 mcg•h/mL and AUCinf of 8.83 ± 1.57 mcg•h/mL at 85 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin and Cmax of 1.1 ± 0.43 mcg/mL, AUC0-48 of 9.74 ± 2.52 mcg•h/mL and AUCinf of 17.3 ± 5.34 mcg•h/mL at 130 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin.

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