OXAPROZIN (Page 4 of 7)


8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Use of NSAIDs, including oxaprozin, during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Avoid use of NSAIDs, including oxaprozin, in pregnant women starting at 30 of weeks gestation (third trimester).

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of oxaprozin in pregnant women.

Data from observational studies regarding potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use in women in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive. In the general U.S. population, all clinically recognized pregnancies, regardless of drug exposure, have a background rate of 2 to 4% for major malformations, and 15 to 20% for pregnancy loss. In animal reproduction studies, oral administration of oxaprozin to pregnant rabbits at doses 0.1 times the maximum daily human dose (based on body surface area) resulted in evidence of teratogenicity; however, oral administration of oxaprozin to pregnant mice and rats during organogenesis at doses equivalent to the maximum recommended human dose revealed no evidence of teratogenicity or embryotoxicity. In rat reproduction studies in which oxaprozin was administered through late gestation failure to deliver and a reduction in live birth index was observed at doses equivalent to the maximum recommended human dose. Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as oxaprozin, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss.

Clinical Considerations

Labor or Delivery

There are no studies on the effects of oxaprozin during labor or delivery. In animal studies, NSAIDS, including oxaprozin, inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, cause delayed parturition, and increase the incidence of stillbirth.


Animal data

Teratology studies with oxaprozin were performed in mice, rats, and rabbits in pregnant animals administered oral doses up to 200 mg/kg/day, 200 mg/kg/day, and 30 mg/kg/day, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. In rabbits, malformations were observed at doses greater than or equal to 7.5 mg/kg/day of oxaprozin (0.1 times the maximum recommended human daily dose [MRHD] of 1800 mg based on body surface area). However, in mice and rats, no drug-related developmental abnormalities or embryo-fetal toxicity were observed at doses up to 50 and 200 mg/kg/day of oxaprozin, respectively (0.1 times and 1.1 times the maximum recommended human daily dose of 1800 mg based on a body surface area comparison, respectively).

In fertility/reproductive studies in rats, 200 mg/kg/day oxaprozin was orally administered to female rats for 14 days prior to mating through lactation day (LD) 2, or from gestation day (GD) 15 through LD 2 and the females were mated with males treated with 200 mg/kg/day oxaprozin for 60 days prior to mating. Oxaprozin administration resulted in failure to deliver and a reduction in live birth index at 200 mg/kg/day (1.1 times the maximum recommended human daily dose of 1800 mg based on a body surface area comparison).

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

Lactation studies have not been conducted with oxaprozin. It is not known whether oxaprozin is excreted in human milk. oxaprozin should be administered to lactating women only if clearly indicated. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for oxaprozin and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from the oxaprozin or from the underlying maternal condition.

8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential



Based on the mechanism of action, the use of prostaglandin-mediated NSAIDs, including oxaprozin, may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women. Published animal studies have shown that administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors has the potential to disrupt prostaglandin-mediated follicular rupture required for ovulation. Small studies in women treated with NSAIDs have also shown a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs, including oxaprozin, in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility.


Testicular degeneration was observed in beagle dogs treated with 37.5 mg/kg/day (0.7 times the maximum recommended human daily dose based on body surface area) of oxaprozin for 42 days or 6 months [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)]

8.4 Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of oxaprozin in pediatric patients below the age of 6 years of age have not been established. The effectiveness of oxaprozin for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) in pediatric patients aged 6 to 16 years is supported by evidence from adequate and well controlled studies in adult rheumatoid arthritis patients, and is based on an extrapolation of the demonstrated efficacy of oxaprozin in adults with rheumatoid arthritis and the similarity in the course of the disease and the drug’s mechanism of effect between these two patient populations. Use of oxaprozin in JRA patients 6 to16 years of age is also supported by the following pediatric studies.

The pharmacokinetic profile and tolerability of oxaprozin were assessed in JRA patients relative to adult rheumatoid arthritis patients in a 14 day multiple dose pharmacokinetic study. Apparent clearance of unbound oxaprozin in JRA patients was reduced compared to adult rheumatoid arthritis patients, but this reduction could be accounted for by differences in body weight [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. No pharmacokinetic data are available for pediatric patients under 6 years. Adverse events were reported by approximately 45% of JRA patients versus an approximate 30% incidence of adverse events in the adult rheumatoid arthritis patient cohort. Most of the adverse events were related to the gastrointestinal tract and were mild to moderate.

In a 3 month open label study, 10 to 20 mg/kg/day of oxaprozin were administered to 59 JRA patients. Adverse events were reported by 58% of JRA patients. Most of those reported were generally mild to moderate, tolerated by the patients, and did not interfere with continuing treatment. Gastrointestinal symptoms were the most frequently reported adverse effects and occurred at a higher incidence than those historically seen in controlled studies in adults. Fifty-two patients completed 3 months of treatment with a mean daily dose of 20 mg/kg. Of 30 patients who continued treatment (19 to 48 week range total treatment duration), nine (30%) experienced rash on sun-exposed areas of the skin and 5 of those discontinued treatment. Controlled clinical trials with oxaprozin in pediatric patients have not been conducted.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. If the anticipated benefit for the elderly patient outweighs these potential risks, start dosing at the low end of the dosing range, and monitor patients for adverse effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.6, 5.13)]. No adjustment of the dose of oxaprozin is necessary in the elderly, although many elderly may need to receive a reduced dose because of low body weight or disorders associated with aging [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Of the total number of subjects evaluated in four placebo controlled clinical studies of oxaprozin, 39% were 65 and over, and 11% were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Although selected elderly patients in controlled clinical trials tolerated oxaprozin as well as younger patients, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly.

Oxaprozin is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to oxaprozin may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].


Symptoms following acute NSAID overdosages have been typically limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which have been generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding has occurred. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression, and coma have occurred, but were rare [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.6)].

Manage patients with symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdosage. There are no specific antidotes. Consider emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 grams in adults, 1 to 2 grams per kg of body weight in pediatric patients) and/or osmotic cathartic in symptomatic patients seen within four hours of ingestion or in patients with a large overdosage (5 to 10 times the recommended dosage). Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.

For additional information about overdosage treatment contact a poison control center (1-800-2221222).

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