OXYCODONE AND ACETAMINOPHEN

OXYCODONE AND ACETAMINOPHEN- oxycodone hydrochloride and acetaminophen tablet
Rebel Distributors Corp

WARNING Hepatotoxicity

Acetaminophen has been associated with cases of acute liver failure, at times resulting in liver transplant and death. Most of the cases of liver injury are associated with the use of acetaminophen at doses that exceed 4000 milligrams per day, and often involve more than one acetaminophen-containing product.

DESCRIPTION

Each tablet, for oral administration, contains oxycodone hydrochloride and acetaminophen in the following strengths:

Oxycodone Hydrochloride USP ………………………………………………………………..5 mg*
Acetaminophen USP …………………………………………………………………………….325 mg
*5 mg oxycodone HCl is equivalent to 4.4815 mg of oxycodone.
Oxycodone Hydrochloride USP ……………………………………………………………..7.5 mg*
Acetaminophen USP …………………………………………………………………………….325 mg
*7.5 mg oxycodone HCl is equivalent to 6.7228 mg of oxycodone.
Oxycodone Hydrochloride USP ……………………………………………………………..7.5 mg*
Acetaminophen USP …………………………………………………………………………….500 mg
*7.5 mg oxycodone HCl is equivalent to 6.7228 mg of oxycodone.
Oxycodone Hydrochloride USP ……………………………………………………………….10 mg*
Acetaminophen USP ……………………………………………………………………………..325 mg
*10 mg oxycodone HCl is equivalent to 8.9637 mg of oxycodone.

All strengths of oxycodone and acetaminophen tablets USP also contain the following inactive ingredients: crospovidone, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone, pregelatinized starch, silicon dioxide and stearic acid.

Oxycodone, 4,5α-epoxy-14-hydroxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-one hydrochloride, is a semisynthetic opioid analgesic which occurs as a white, odorless, crystalline powder having a saline, bitter taste. It is derived from the opium alkaloid thebaine. Oxycodone hydrochloride may be represented by the following structural formula:

Chemical Structure

Acetaminophen, 4′-hydroxyacetanilide, is a non-opiate, non-salicylate analgesic and antipyretic which occurs as a white, odorless, crystalline powder, possessing a slightly bitter taste. It may be represented by the following structural formula:

Chemical StructureChemical StructureChemical Structure

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Central Nervous System

Oxycodone is a semisynthetic pure opioid agonist whose principal therapeutic action is analgesia. Other pharmacological effects of oxycodone include anxiolysis, euphoria and feelings of relaxation. These effects are mediated by receptors (notably μ and κ) in the central nervous system for endogenous opioid-like compounds such as endorphins and enkephalins. Oxycodone produces respiratory depression through direct activity at respiratory centers in the brain stem and depresses the cough reflex by direct effect on the center of the medulla.

Acetaminophen is a non-opiate, non-salicylate analgesic and antipyretic. The site and mechanism for the analgesic effect of acetaminophen has not been determined. The antipyretic effect of acetaminophen is accomplished through the inhibition of endogenous pyrogen action on the hypothalamic heat-regulating centers.

Gastrointestinal Tract and Other Smooth Muscle

Oxycodone reduces motility by increasing smooth muscle tone in the stomach and duodenum. In the small intestine, digestion of food is delayed by decreases in propulsive contractions. Other opioid effects include contraction of biliary tract smooth muscle, spasm of the Sphincter of Oddi, increased ureteral and bladder sphincter tone, and a reduction in uterine tone.

Cardiovascular System

Oxycodone may produce a release of histamine and may be associated with orthostatic hypotension, and other symptoms, such as pruritus, flushing, red eyes, and sweating.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption and Distribution – The mean absolute oral bioavailability of oxycodone in cancer patients was reported to be about 87%. Oxycodone has been shown to be 45% bound to human plasma proteins in vitro. The volume of distribution after intravenous administration is 211.9 ± 186.6 L.

Absorption of acetaminophen is rapid and almost complete from the GI tract after oral administration. With overdosage, absorption is complete in 4 hours. Acetaminophen is relatively uniformly distributed throughout most body fluids. Binding of the drug to plasma proteins is variable; only 20% to 50% may be bound at the concentrations encountered during acute intoxication.

Metabolism and Elimination

A high portion of oxycodone is N-dealkylated to noroxycodone during first-pass metabolism. Oxymorphone, is formed by the O-demethylation of oxycodone. The metabolism of oxycodone to oxymorphone is catalyzed by CYP2D6. Free and conjugated noroxycodone, free and conjugated oxycodone, and oxymorphone are excreted in human urine following a single oral dose of oxycodone. Approximately 8% to 14% of the dose is excreted as free oxycodone over 24 hours after administration. Following a single, oral dose of oxycodone, the mean ± SD elimination half-life is 3.51 ± 1.43 hours.

Acetaminophen is metabolized in the liver via cytochrome P450 microsomal enzyme. About 80% to 85% of the acetaminophen in the body is conjugated principally with glucuronic acid and to a lesser extent with sulfuric acid and cysteine. After hepatic conjugation, 90% to 100% of the drug is recovered in the urine within the first day.

About 4% of acetaminophen is metabolized via cytochrome P450 oxidase to a toxic metabolite which is further detoxified by conjugation with glutathione, present in a fixed amount. It is believed that the toxic metabolite NAPQI (N acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine, N-acetylimidoquinone) is responsible for liver necrosis. High doses of acetaminophen may deplete the glutathione stores so that inactivation of the toxic metabolite is decreased. At high doses, the capacity of metabolic pathways for conjugation with glucuronic acid and sulfuric acid may be exceeded, resulting in increased metabolism of acetaminophen by alternate pathways.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Oxycodone and acetaminophen tablets USP are indicated for the relief of moderate to moderately severe pain.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Oxycodone and acetaminophen tablets should not be administered to patients with known hypersensitivity to oxycodone, acetaminophen, or any other component of this product.

Oxycodone is contraindicated in any situation where opioids are contraindicated including patients with significant respiratory depression (in unmonitored settings or the absence of resuscitative equipment) and patients with acute or severe bronchial asthma or hypercarbia. Oxycodone is contraindicated in the setting of suspected or known paralytic ileus.

WARNINGS

Hepatotoxicity

Acetaminophen has been associated with cases of acute liver failure, at times resulting in liver transplant and death. Most of the cases of liver injury are associated with the use of acetaminophen at doses that exceed 4000 milligrams per day, and often involve more than one acetaminophen-containing product. The excessive intake of acetaminophen may be intentional to cause self-harm or unintentional as patients attempt to obtain more pain relief or unknowingly take other acetaminophen-containing products.

The risk of acute liver failure is higher in individuals with underlying liver disease and in individuals who ingest alcohol while taking acetaminophen.

Instruct patients to look for acetaminophen or APAP on package labels and not to use more than one product that contains acetaminophen. Instruct patients to seek medical attention immediately upon ingestion of more than 4000 milligrams of acetaminophen per day, even if they feel well.

Hypersensitivity/anaphylaxis

There have been post-marketing reports of hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis associated with use of acetaminophen. Clinical signs included swelling of the face, mouth, and throat, respiratory distress, urticaria, rash, pruritus, and vomiting. There were infrequent reports of life-threatening anaphylaxis requiring emergency medical attention. Instruct patients to discontinue oxycodone and acetaminophen tablets USP immediately and seek medical care if they experience these symptoms. Do not prescribe oxycodone and acetaminophen tablets USP for patients with acetaminophen allergy.

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