Oxycodone and Acetaminophen
OXYCODONE AND ACETAMINOPHEN- oxycodone hydrochloride and acetaminophen tablet
Aidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC
Acetaminophen has been associated with cases of acute liver failure, at times resulting in liver transplant and death. Most of the cases of liver injury are associated with the use of acetaminophen at doses that exceed 4000 milligrams per day, and often involve more than one acetaminophen-containing product.
Each tablet, for oral administration, contains oxycodone hydrochloride and acetaminophen in the following strengths:
Oxycodone Hydrochloride, USP 5 mg*
Acetaminophen, USP 325 mg
*5 mg oxycodone HCl is equivalent to 4.4815 mg of oxycodone.
Oxycodone Hydrochloride, USP 7.5mg*
Acetaminophen, USP 325 mg
*7.5 mg oxycodone HCl is equivalent to 6.7228 mg of oxycodone.
Oxycodone Hydrochloride, USP 10 mg*
Acetaminophen, USP 325 mg
*10 mg oxycodone HCl is equivalent to 8.9637 mg of oxycodone.
All strengths of Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets also contain the following inactive ingredients: Pregelatinized cornstarch, povidone, lactose monohydrate, crospovidone, and stearic acid. In addition, the 5 mg/325 mg strength contains FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. The 7.5 mg/325 mg strength contains FD&C Yellow No. 6 Aluminum Lake. The 10 mg/325 mg strength contains D&C Yellow No. 10 Aluminum Lake.
Oxycodone, 14-hydroxydihydrocodeinone, is a semisynthetic opioid analgesic which occurs as a white, odorless, crystalline powder having a saline, bitter taste. The molecular formula for oxycodone hydrochloride is C18 H21 NO4 •HCl and the molecular weight 351.82. It is derived from the opium alkaloid thebaine, and may be represented by the following structural formula:
Acetaminophen, 4′-hydroxyacetanilide, is a non-opiate, non-salicylate analgesic and antipyretic which occurs as a white, odorless, crystalline powder, possessing a slightly bitter taste. The molecular formula for acetaminophen is C8 H9 NO2 and the molecular weight is 151.17. It may be represented by the following structural formula:
Central Nervous System
Oxycodone is a semisynthetic pure opioid agonist whose principal therapeutic action is analgesia. Other pharmacological effects of oxycodone include anxiolysis, euphoria and feelings of relaxation. These effects are mediated by receptors (notably μ and κ) in the central nervous system for endogenous opioid-like compounds such as endorphins and enkephalins. Oxycodone produces respiratory depression through direct activity at respiratory centers in the brain stem and depresses the cough reflex by direct effect on the center of the medulla.
Acetaminophen is a non-opiate, non-salicylate analgesic and antipyretic. The site and mechanism for the analgesic effect of acetaminophen has not been determined. The antipyretic effect of acetaminophen is accomplished through the inhibition of endogenous pyrogen action on the hypothalamic heat-regulating centers.
Gastrointestinal Tract And Other Smooth Muscle
Oxycodone reduces motility by increasing smooth muscle tone in the stomach and duodenum. In the small intestine, digestion of food is delayed by decreases in propulsive contractions. Other opioid effects include contraction of biliary tract smooth muscle, spasm of the Sphincter of Oddi, increased ureteral and bladder sphincter tone, and a reduction in uterine tone.
Oxycodone may produce a release of histamine and may be associated with orthostatic hypotension, and other symptoms, such as pruritus, flushing, red eyes, and sweating.
Absorption and Distribution
The mean absolute oral bioavailability of oxycodone in cancer patients was reported to be about 87%. Oxycodone has been shown to be 45% bound to human plasma proteins in vitro. The volume of distribution after intravenous administration is 211.9 ±186.6 L.
Absorption of acetaminophen is rapid and almost complete from the GI tract after oral administration. With overdosage, absorption is complete in 4 hours. Acetaminophen is relatively uniformly distributed throughout most body fluids. Binding of the drug to plasma proteins is variable; only 20% to 50% may be bound at the concentrations encountered during acute intoxication.
Metabolism and Elimination
A high portion of oxycodone is N-dealkylated to noroxycodone during first-pass metabolism. Oxymorphone, is formed by the O-demethylation of oxycodone. The metabolism of oxycodone to oxymorphone is catalyzed by CYP2D6. Free and conjugated noroxycodone, free and conjugated oxycodone, and oxymorphone are excreted in human urine following a single oral dose of oxycodone. Approximately 8% to 14% of the dose is excreted as free oxycodone over 24 hours after administration. Following a single, oral dose of oxycodone, the mean ± SD elimination half-life is 3.51 ± 1.43 hours.
Acetaminophen is metabolized in the liver via cytochrome P450 microsomal enzyme. About 80-85% of the acetaminophen in the body is conjugated principally with glucuronic acid and to a lesser extent with sulfuric acid and cysteine. After hepatic conjugation, 90 to 100% of the drug is recovered in the urine within the first day.
About 4% of acetaminophen is metabolized via cytochrome P450 oxidase to a toxic metabolite which is further detoxified by conjugation with glutathione, present in a fixed amount. It is believed that the toxic metabolite NAPQI (N acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine, N-acetylimidoquinone) is responsible for liver necrosis. High doses of acetaminophen may deplete the glutathione stores so that inactivation of the toxic metabolite is decreased. At high doses, the capacity of metabolic pathways for conjugation with glucuronic acid and sulfuric acid may be exceeded, resulting in increased metabolism of acetaminophen by alternate pathways.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets is indicated for the relief of moderate to moderately severe pain.
Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets should not be administered to patients with known hypersensitivity to oxycodone, acetaminophen, or any other component of this product.
Oxycodone is contraindicated in any situation where opioids are contraindicated including patients with significant respiratory depression (in unmonitored settings or the absence of resuscitative equipment) and patients with acute or severe bronchial asthma or hypercarbia. Oxycodone is contraindicated in the setting of suspected or known paralytic ileus.
Misuse, Abuse and Diversion of Opioids
Oxycodone is an opioid agonist of the morphine-type. Such drugs are sought by drug abusers and people with addiction disorders and are subject to criminal diversion.
Oxycodone can be abused in a manner similar to other opioid agonists, legal or illicit. This should be considered when prescribing or dispensing Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets in situations where the physician or pharmacist is concerned about an increased risk of misuse, abuse, or diversion. Concerns about misuse, addiction, and diversion should not prevent the proper management of pain.
Healthcare professionals should contact their State Professional Licensing Board or State Controlled Substances Authority for information on how to prevent and detect abuse or diversion of this product.
Administration of Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets should be closely monitored for the following potentially serious adverse reactions and complications:
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