Oxycodone and Acetaminophen (Page 4 of 8)

Laboratory Tests

Although oxycodone may cross-react with some drug urine tests, no available studies were found which determined the duration of detectability of oxycodone in urine drug screens. However, based on pharmacokinetic data, the approximate duration of detectability for a single dose of oxycodone is roughly estimated to be one to two days following drug exposure.

Urine testing for opiates may be performed to determine illicit drug use and for medical reasons such as evaluation of patients with altered states of consciousness or monitoring efficacy of drug rehabilitation efforts. The preliminary identification of opiates in urine involves the use of an immunoassay screening and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) may be utilized as a third-stage identification step in the medical investigational sequence for opiate testing after immunoassay and TLC. The identities of 6-keto opiates (e.g., oxycodone) can further be differentiated by the analysis of their methoximetrimethylsilyl (MO-TMS) derivative.

Drug Interactions

Inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6

The concomitant use of Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets and CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin), azole-antifungal agents (e.g., ketoconazole), and protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir), can increase the plasma concentration of oxycodone, resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects. These effects could be more pronounced with concomitant use of Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets and CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibitors, particularly when an inhibitor is added after a stable dose of Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets is achieved [see WARNINGS].

After stopping a CYP3A4 inhibitor, as the effects of the inhibitor decline, the oxycodone plasma concentration will decrease [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY], resulting in decreased opioid efficacy or a withdrawal syndrome in patients who had developed physical dependence to Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets.

If concomitant use is necessary, consider dosage reduction of Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals. If a CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued, consider increasing the Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets dosage until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal.

Inducers of CYP3A4

The concomitant use of Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets and CYP3A4 inducers, such as rifampin, carbamazepine, and phenytoin, can decrease the plasma concentration of oxycodone [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY], resulting in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence to Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets [see WARNINGS].

After stopping a CYP3A4 inducer, as the effects of the inducer decline, the oxycodone plasma concentration will increase [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY], which could increase or prolong both the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions, and may cause serious respiratory depression.

If concomitant use is necessary, consider increasing the Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets dosage until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. If a CYP3A4 inducer is discontinued, consider Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets dosage reduction and monitor for signs of respiratory depression.

Benzodiazepines and Other CNS Depressants

Due to additive pharmacologic effect, the concomitant use of benzodiazepines and other CNS depressants such as benzodiazepines and other sedative hypnotics, anxiolytics, and tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, and other opioids, including alcohol, can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death.

Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is warranted, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose [see WARNINGS].

Serotonergic Drugs

The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), tryptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that affect the serotonin neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol), certain muscle relaxants (i.e., cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue), has resulted in serotonin syndrome [see PRECAUTIONS; Information for Patients/Caregivers].

If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets if serotonin syndrome is suspected.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

The concomitant use of opioids and MAOIs, such as phenelzine, tranylcypromine, linezolid, may manifest as serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity (e.g., respiratory depression, coma) [see WARNINGS].

The use of Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets is not recommended for patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping such treatment.

If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression.

Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics

The concomitant use of opioids with other opioid analgesics, such as butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine, may reduce the analgesic effect of Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms.

Advise patient to avoid concomitant use of these drugs.

Muscle Relaxants

Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking action of skeletal muscle relaxants and produce an increase in the degree of respiratory depression.

If concomitant use is warranted, monitor patients for signs of respiratory depression that may be greater than otherwise expected and decrease the dosage of Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets and/or the muscle relaxant as necessary. Due to the risk of respiratory depression with concomitant use of skeletal muscle relaxants and opioids, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose [see WARNINGS].

Diuretics

Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone.

If concomitant use is warranted, monitor patients for signs of diminished diuresis and/or effects on blood pressure and increase the dosage of the diuretic as needed.

Anticholinergic Drugs

The concomitant use of anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.

If concomitant use is warranted, monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets are used concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs.

Alcohol, ethyl

Hepatotoxicity has occurred in chronic alcoholics following various dose levels (moderate to excessive) of acetaminophen.

Oral Contraceptives

Increase in glucuronidation resulting in increased plasma clearance and a decreased half-life of acetaminophen.

Charcoal (activated)

Reduces acetaminophen absorption when administered as soon as possible after overdose.

Beta Blockers (Propranolol)

Propranolol appears to inhibit the enzyme systems responsible for the glucuronidation and oxidation of acetaminophen. Therefore, the pharmacologic effects of acetaminophen may be increased.

Loop Diuretics

The effects of the loop diuretic may be decreased because acetaminophen may decrease renal prostaglandin excretion and decrease plasma renin activity.

Lamotrigine

Serum lamotrigine concentrations may be reduced, producing a decrease in therapeutic effects.

Probenecid

Probenecid may increase the therapeutic effectiveness of acetaminophen slightly.

Zidovudine

The pharmacologic effects of zidovudine may be decreased because of enhanced non-hepatic or renal clearance of zidovudine.

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