OXYCODONE AND ACETAMINOPHEN
OXYCODONE AND ACETAMINOPHEN- oxycodone hydrochloride and acetaminophen solution
WARNING: SERIOUS AND LIFE-THREATENING RISKS FROM USE OF OXYCODONE HYDROCHLORIDE AND ACETAMINOPHEN ORAL SOLUTION
Risk of Medication Errors
Ensure accuracy when prescribing, dispensing, and administering oxycodone hydrochloride and acetaminophen oral solution 5mg/325mg per 5mL. Dosing errors due to confusion between mg and mL, and other oxycodone hydrochloride and acetaminophen oral solution of different concentrations can result in accidental overdose and death [see Dosage and Administration, Warnings].
Addiction‚ Abuse‚ and Misuse
Because the use of Oxycodone hydrochloride and acetaminophen oral solution exposes patients and other users to the risks of opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death, assess each patient’s risk prior to prescribing and reassess all patients regularly for the development of these behaviors or conditions [see Warnings].
Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression
S erious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of oxycodone hydrochloride and acetaminophen oral solution,especially during initiation or following a dose increase. To reduce the risk of respiratory depression, proper dosing and titration of oxycodone hydrochloride and acetaminophen oral solution are essential [see Warnings].
Accidental ingestion of even one dose of oxycodone hydrochloride and acetaminophen oral solution, especially by children, can result in a fatal overdose of oxycodone [see Warnings].
Risks From Concomitant Use With Benzodiazepines Or Other CNS Depressants
Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Reserve concomitant prescribing of oxycodone hydrochloride and acetaminophen oral solution and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate [see Warnings, Precautions, Drug Interactions].
Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
If opioid use is required for an extended period of time in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of NOWS, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated. Ensure that management by neonatology experts will be available at delivery [see Warnings].
Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS)
Healthcare providers are strongly encouraged to complete a REMS-compliant education program and to counsel patients and caregivers on serious risks, safe use, and the importance of reading the Medication Guide with each prescription [see Warnings].
Cytochrome P450 3A4 Interaction
The concomitant use of oxycodone hydrochloride and acetaminophen oral solution with all cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors may result in an increase in oxycodone plasma concentrations, which could increase or prolong adverse reactions and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression. In addition, discontinuation of a concomitantly used cytochrome P450 3A4 inducer may result in an increase in oxycodone plasma concentration. Monitor patients receiving oxycodone hydrochloride and acetaminophen oral solution and any CYP3A4 inhibitor or inducer [see Clinical Pharmacology, Warnings, Precautions , Drug Interactions].
Acetaminophen has been associated with cases of acute liver failure, at times resulting in liver transplant and death. Most of the cases of liver injury are associated with the use of acetaminophen at doses that exceed 4000 mg per day, and often involve more than one acetaminophen-containing product [see Warnings].
Oxycodone hydrochloride and acetaminophen is available in liquid forms for oral administration.
Each 5 mL of oral solution for oral administration contains:
Oxycodone hydrochloride USP………….……5 mg*
(*5 mg oxycodone hydrochloride is equivalent to 4.4815 mg oxycodone)
Acetaminophen USP………………………..325 mg
The solution contains: edetate disodium, FD&C Red No. 40 powder, flavor mixed berry natural and artificial, hydrochloric acid, polyethylene glycol, potassium sorbate, propylene glycol, purified water, saccharin sodium, sucrose. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may be added to adjust pH.
Oxycodone hydrochloride and acetaminophen oral solution contains oxycodone, 14-hydroxydihydrocodeinone, a semisynthetic opioid analgesic which occurs as a white to off-white fine crystalline powder. The molecular formula for oxycodone hydrochloride is C 18 H 21 NO 4 • HCl and the molecular weight is 351.82. It is derived from the opium alkaloid, thebaine, and may be represented by the following structural formula:
Oxycodone hydrochloride and acetaminophen oral solution contains acetaminophen, 4′-hydroxyacetanilide, is a non-opiate, non-salicylate analgesic and antipyretic which occurs as a white, odorless, crystalline powder. The molecular formula for acetaminophen is C 8 H 9 NO 2 and the molecular weight is 151.16. It may be represented by the following structural formula:chemical structure Oxychemical structure APAP
Mechanism of Action
Oxycodone is a full opioid agonist with relative selectivity for the mu-opioid receptor, although it can interact with other opioid receptors at higher doses. The principal therapeutic action of oxycodone is analgesia. Like all full opioid agonists, there is no ceiling effect for analgesia with oxycodone. Clinically, dosage is titrated to provide adequate analgesia and may be limited by adverse reactions, including respiratory and CNS depression.
The precise mechanism of the analgesic action is unknown. However, specific CNS opioid receptors for endogenous compounds with opioid-like activity have been identified throughout the brain and spinal cord and are thought to play a role in the analgesic effects of this drug.
The precise mechanism of the analgesic properties of acetaminophen is not established but is thought to involve central actions.
Effects on the Central Nervous System
Oxycodone produces respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratory centers. The respiratory depression involves a reduction in the responsiveness of the brain stem respiratory centers to both increases in carbon dioxide tension and electrical stimulation.
Oxycodone causes miosis, even in total darkness. Pinpoint pupils are a sign of opioid overdose but are not pathognomonic (e.g., pontine lesions of hemorrhagic or ischemic origins may produce similar findings). Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen due to hypoxia in overdose situations.
Therapeutic doses of acetaminophen have negligible effects on the cardiovascular or respiratory systems; however, toxic doses may cause circulatory failure and rapid, shallow breathing.
Effects on the Gastrointestinal Tract and Other Smooth Muscle
Oxycodone causes a reduction in motility associated with an increase in smooth muscle tone in the antrum of the stomach and duodenum. Digestion of food in the small intestine is delayed and propulsive contractions are decreased. Propulsive peristaltic waves in the colon are decreased, while tone may be increased to the point of spasm, resulting in constipation. Other opioid-induced effects may include a reduction in biliary and pancreatic secretions, spasm of sphincter of Oddi, and transient elevations in serum amylase.
Effects on the Cardiovascular System
Oxycodone produces peripheral vasodilation which may result in orthostatic hypotension or syncope. Manifestations of histamine release and/or peripheral vasodilation may include pruritus, flushing, red eyes, sweating, and/or orthostatic hypotension.
Effects on the Endocrine System
Opioids inhibit the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and luteinizing hormone (LH) in humans [see Adverse Reactions]. They also stimulate prolactin, growth hormone (GH) secretion, and pancreatic secretion of insulin and glucagon.
Use of opioids for an extended period of time may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to androgen deficiency that may manifest as symptoms as low libido, impotence, erectile dysfunction, amenorrhea, or infertility. The causal role of opioids in the syndrome of hypogonadism is unknown because the various medical, physical, lifestyle, and psychological stressors that may influence gonadal hormone levels have not been adequately controlled for in studies conducted to date [see Adverse Reactions] .
Effects on the Immune System
Opioids have been shown to have a variety of effects on components of the immune system. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Overall, the effects of opioids appear to be modestly immunosuppressive.
The minimum effective analgesic concentration will vary widely among patients, especially among patients who have been previously treated with extended-release agonist opioids. The minimum effective analgesic concentration of oxycodone for any individual patient may increase over time due to an increase in pain, the development of a new pain syndrome, and/or the development of analgesic tolerance [see Dosage and Administration].
Concentration-Adverse Reaction Relationships
There is a relationship between increasing oxycodone plasma concentration and increasing frequency of dose-related opioid adverse reactions such as nausea, vomiting, CNS effects, and respiratory depression. In opioid-tolerant patients, the situation may be altered by the development of tolerance to opioid-related adverse reactions [see Dosage and Administration].
Absorption and Distribution – The mean absolute oral bioavailability of oxycodone in cancer patients was reported to be about 87%. Oxycodone has been shown to be 45% bound to human plasma proteins in vitro. The volume of distribution after intravenous administration is 211.9 ±186.6 L.
Absorption of acetaminophen is rapid and almost complete from the GI tract after oral administration. With overdosage, absorption is complete in 4 hours. Acetaminophen is relatively uniformly distributed throughout most body fluids. Binding of the drug to plasma proteins is variable; only 20% to 50% may be bound at the concentrations encountered during acute intoxication.
Metabolism and Elimination
In humans, oxycodone is extensively metabolized to noroxycodone by means of CYP3A-mediated N- demethylation, oxymorphone by means of CYP2D6-mediated O-demethylation, and their glucuronides [see Precautions, Drug Interactions] .
Acetaminophen is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is distributed throughout most body tissues. A small fraction (10 to 25%) of acetaminophen is bound to plasma proteins. The plasma half-life is 1.25 to 3 hours, but may be increased by liver damage and following overdosage. Elimination of acetaminophen is principally by liver metabolism (conjugation) and subsequent renal excretion of metabolites. Acetaminophen is primarily metabolized in the liver by first-order kinetics and involves three principal separate pathways: conjugation with glucuronide; conjugation with sulfate; and oxidation via the cytochrome, P450-dependent, mixed-function oxidase enzyme pathway to form a reactive intermediate metabolite, which conjugates with glutathione and is then further metabolized to form cysteine and mercapturic acid conjugates. The principal cytochrome P450 isoenzyme involved appears to be CYP2E1, with CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 as additional pathways. Approximately 85% of an oral dose appears in the urine within 24 hours of administration, most as the glucuronide conjugate, with small amounts of other conjugates and unchanged drug [see Overdosage] for toxicity information.
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