Oxycodone and Acetaminophen (Page 5 of 8)

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis
Long-term studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of the combination of Oxycodone and Acetaminophen have not been conducted.
Long-term studies in mice and rats have been completed by the National Toxicology Program to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of acetaminophen. In 2-year feeding studies, F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were fed a diet containing acetaminophen up to 6000 ppm. Female rats demonstrated equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity based on increased incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia at 0.8 times the maximum human daily dose (MHDD) of 4 grams/day, based on a body surface area comparison. In contrast, there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity in male rats that received up to 0.7 times or mice at up to 1.2-1.4 times the MHDD, based on a body surface area comparison.
Mutagenesis
The combination of Oxycodone and Acetaminophen has not been evaluated for mutagenicity. Oxycodone alone was negative in a bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames), an in vitro chromosome aberration assay with human lymphocytes without metabolic activation and an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. Oxycodone was clastogenic in the human lymphocyte chromosomal assay in the presence of metabolic activation and in the mouse lymphoma assay with or without metabolic activation.
In the published literature, acetaminophen has been reported to be clastogenic when administered at 1500 mg/kg/day to the rat model (3.6-times the MHDD, based on a body surface area comparison). In contrast, no clastogenicity was noted at a dose of 750 mg/kg/day (1.8-times the MHDD, based on a body surface area comparison), suggesting a threshold effect.
Impairment of Fertility
In studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program, fertility assessments with acetaminophen have been completed in Swiss CD-1 mice via a continuous breeding study. There were no effects on fertility parameters in mice consuming up to 1.7 times the MHDD of acetaminophen, based on a body surface area comparison. Although there was no effect on sperm motility or sperm density in the epididymis, there was a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm in mice consuming 1.78 times the MHDD (based on a body surface comparison) and there was a reduction in the number of mating pairs Producing a fifth litter at this dose, suggesting the potential for cumulative toxicity with chronic administration of acetaminophen near the upper limit of daily dosing.
Published studies in rodents report that oral acetaminophen treatment of male animals at doses that are 1.2 times the MHDD and greater (based on a body surface comparison) result in decreased testicular weights, reduced spermatogenesis, reduced fertility, and reduced implantation sites in females given the same doses. These effects appear to increase with the duration of treatment. The clinical significance of these findings is not known.
InfertilityChronic use of opioids may cause reduced fertility in females and males of reproductive potential. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects
Pregnancy Category C
Animal reproductive studies have not been conducted with Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets. It is also not known whether Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproductive capacity. Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets should not be given to a pregnant woman unless in the judgment of the physician, the potential benefits outweigh the possible hazards.
Nonteratogenic Effects
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy for medical or nonmedical purposes can result in physical dependence in the neonate and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome shortly after birth.Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome presents as irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea and failure to gain weight. The onset, duration, and severity of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination of the drug by the newborn. Observe newborns for symptoms of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and manage accordingly [see WARNINGS].

Labor or Delivery

Opioids cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression and psycho-physiologic effects in neonates. An opioid antagonist, such as naloxone, must be available for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression in the neonate. Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets are not recommended for use in pregnant women during or immediately prior to labor, when other analgesic techniques are more appropriate. Opioid analgesics, including Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets, can prolong labor through actions which temporarily reduce the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions. However, this effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilation, which tends to shorten labor. Monitor neonates exposed to opioid analgesics during labor for signs of excess sedation and respiratory depression.

Nursing Mothers

Ordinarily, nursing should not be undertaken while a patient is receiving Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets because of the possibility of sedation and/or respiratory depression in the infant. Oxycodone is excreted in breast milk in low concentrations, and there have been rare reports of somnolence and lethargy in babies of nursing mothers taking an oxycodone/acetaminophen product. Acetaminophen is also excreted in breast milk in low concentrations.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets or from the underlying maternal condition.Infants exposed to Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets through breast milk should be monitored for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfed infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped, or when breast-feeding is stopped.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Elderly patients (aged 65 years or older) may have increased sensitivity Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets. In general, use caution when selecting a dosage for an elderly patient, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Respiratory depression is the chief risk for elderly patients treated with opioids, and has occurred after large initial doses were administered to patients who were not opioid-tolerant or when opioids were co-administered with other agents that depress respiration. Titrate the dosage of Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets slowly in geriatric patients and monitor closely for signs of central nervous system and respiratory depression [see WARNINGS].These drugs are known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Hepatic Impairment

In a pharmacokinetic study of oxycodone in patients with end-stage liver disease, oxycodone plasma clearance decreased and the elimination half-life increased.Because oxycodone is extensively metabolized in the liver, its clearance may decrease in patients with hepatic impairment. Initiate therapy in these patients with a lower than usual dosage of Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets and titrate carefully. Monitor closely for adverse events such as respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension [see Clinical Pharmacology].

Renal Impairment

In a study of patients with end stage renal impairment, mean elimination half-life was prolonged in uremic patients due to increased volume of distribution and reduced clearance. Oxycodone should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment. Because oxycodone is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, its clearance may decrease in patients with renal impairment. Initiate therapy with a lower than usual dosage of Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets and titrate carefully. Monitor closely for adverse events such as respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension [see Clinical Pharmacology].

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Serious adverse reactions that may be associated with oxycodone and acetaminophen tablets use include respiratory depression, apnea, respiratory arrest, circulatory depression, hypotension, and shock [see

OVERDOSAGE ].
The most frequently observed non-serious adverse reactions include lightheadedness, dizziness, drowsiness or sedation, nausea, and vomiting. These effects seem to be more prominent in ambulatory than in nonambulatory patients, and some of these adverse reactions may be alleviated if the patient lies down. Other adverse reactions include euphoria, dysphoria, constipation, and pruritus.
Hypersensitivity reactions may include: Skin eruptions, urticarial, erythematous skin reactions. Hematologic reactions may include: Thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, pancytopenia, hemolytic anemia. Rare cases of agranulocytosis has likewise been associated with acetaminophen use. In high doses, the most serious adverse effect is a dose-dependent, potentially fatal hepatic necrosis. Renal tubular necrosis and hypoglycemic coma also may occur.
Other adverse reactions obtained from postmarketing experiences with oxycodone and acetaminophen tablets are listed by organ system and in decreasing order of severity and/or frequency as follows:
Body as a Whole: Anaphylactoid reaction, allergic reaction, malaise, asthenia, fatigue, chest pain, fever, hypothermia, thirst, headache, increased sweating, accidental overdose, non-accidental overdose
Cardiovascular: Hypotension, hypertension, tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia, palpitations, dysrhythmias
Central and Peripheral Nervous System: Stupor, tremor, paraesthesia, hypoaesthesia, lethargy, seizures, anxiety, mental impairment, agitation, cerebral edema, confusion, dizziness
Fluid and Electrolyte: Dehydration, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis
Gastrointestinal: Dyspepsia, taste disturbances, abdominal pain, abdominal distention, sweating increased, diarrhea, dry mouth, flatulence, gastro¬intestinal disorder, nausea, vomiting, pancreatitis, intestinal obstruction, ileus
Hepatic: Transient elevations of hepatic enzymes, increase in bilirubin, hepatitis, hepatic failure, jaundice, hepatotoxicity, hepatic disorder
Hearing and Vestibular: Hearing loss, tinnitus
Hematologic: Thrombocytopenia
Hypersensitivity: Acute anaphylaxis, angioedema, asthma, bronchospasm, laryngeal edema, urticaria, anaphylactoid reaction
Metabolic and Nutritional: Hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, acidosis, alkalosis
Musculoskeletal: Myalgia, rhabdomyolysis
Ocular: Miosis,visual disturbances, red eye
Psychiatric: Drug dependence, drug abuse, insomnia, confusion, anxiety, agitation, depressed level of consciousness, nervousness, hallucination, somnolence, depression, suicide
Respiratory System: Bronchospasm, dyspnea, hyperpnea, pulmonary edema, tachypnea, aspiration, hypoventilation, laryngeal edema
Skin and Appendages: Erythema, urticaria, rash, flushing
Urogenital: Interstitial nephritis, papillary necrosis, proteinuria, renal insufficiency and failure, urinary retention

  • Serotonin syndrome: Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported during concomitant use of opioids with serotonergic drugs.
  • Adrenal insufficiency: Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use.
  • Anaphylaxis: Anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in Oxycodone Hydrochloride and Acetaminophen Tablets.
  • Androgen deficiency: Cases of androgen deficiency have occurred with chronic use of opioids [see Clinical Pharmacology].

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