Oxycodone Hydrochloride

OXYCODONE HYDROCHLORIDE- oxycodone hydrochloride capsule
Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., USA

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Oxycodone hydrochloride capsule is an opioid analgesic, indicated for the management of moderate to severe acute and chronic pain where use of an opioid analgesic is appropriate.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Selection of patients for treatment with oxycodone hydrochloride should be governed by the same principles that apply to the use of similar opioid analgesics. Individualize treatment in every case, using non-opioid analgesics, opioids on an as needed basis and/or combination products, and chronic opioid therapy in a progressive plan of pain management such as outlined by the World Health Organization, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the American Pain Society.

2.1 Individualization of Dosage

As with any opioid drug product, adjust the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient’s prior analgesic treatment experience. In the selection of the initial dose of oxycodone hydrochloride, give attention to the following:

the total daily dose, potency and specific characteristics of the opioid the patient has been taking previously;
the reliability of the relative potency estimate used to calculate the equivalent oxycodone hydrochloride dose needed;
the patient’s degree of opioid tolerance;
the general condition and medical status of the patient;
concurrent medications;
the type and severity of the patient’s pain;
risk factors for abuse, addiction or diversion, including a prior history of abuse, addiction or diversion.

The following dosing recommendations, therefore, can only be considered suggested approaches to what is actually a series of clinical decisions over time in the management of the pain of each individual patient.

Continual re-evaluation of the patient receiving oxycodone hydrochloride is important, with special attention to the maintenance of pain control and the relative incidence of side effects associated with therapy. During chronic therapy, especially for non-cancer-related pain, periodically re-assess the continued need for the use of opioid analgesics.

During periods of changing analgesic requirements, including initial titration, frequent contact is recommended between physician, other members of the healthcare team, the patient, and the caregiver/family.

2.2 Initiation of Therapy in Opioid-Naïve Patients

Start patients who have not been receiving opioid analgesics on oxycodone hydrochloride in the following dosing range using Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules, 5 mg strength:

Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules: 5 to 15 mg every 4 to 6 hours as needed for pain.

Titrate the dose based upon the individual patient’s response to their initial dose of oxycodone hydrochloride. Adjust the dose to an acceptable level of analgesia taking into account the improvement in pain intensity and the tolerability of the oxycodone by the patient.

2.3 Conversion to Oral Oxycodone Hydrochloride

There is inter-patient variability in the potency of opioid drugs and opioid formulations. Therefore, a conservative approach is advised when determining the total daily dose of oxycodone hydrochloride. It is better to underestimate a patient’s 24-hour oral oxycodone hydrochloride dose and make available rescue medication than to overestimate the 24-hour oral oxycodone hydrochloride dose and manage an adverse experience of overdose.

Consider the following general points regarding opioid conversions.

Conversion From other Non-Oxycodone Opioids to Oral Oxycodone Hydrochloride.

In converting patients from other opioids to oxycodone hydrochloride, close observation and adjustment of dosage based upon the patient’s response to oxycodone hydrochloride is imperative. Physicians and other healthcare professionals are advised to refer to published relative potency information, keeping in mind that conversion ratios are only approximate.

Conversion From Controlled-Release Oral Oxycodone to Oral Oxycodone Hydrochloride.

The relative bioavailability of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsule compared to controlled-release oxycodone is unknown. The extended duration of release of oxycodone hydrochloride from controlled-release tablets results in reduced maximum and increased minimum plasma oxycodone hydrochloride concentrations than with shorter acting oxycodone hydrochloride products. Conversion from controlled-release tablets could lead to excessive sedation at peak serum levels. Therefore, dose adjustment with close observation is necessary.

Conversion From Oral Oxycodone Hydrochloride to Controlled-Release Oral Oxycodone

The relative bioavailability of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules compared to controlled-release oxycodone is unknown, so conversion to controlled-release tablets must be accompanied by close observation for signs of excessive sedation.

2.4 Maintenance of Therapy

Continual re-evaluation of the patient receiving oxycodone hydrochloride is important, with special attention to the maintenance of pain management and the relative incidence of side effects associated with therapy. If the level of pain increases, effort should be made to identify the source of increased pain, while adjusting the dose as described above to decrease the level of pain. During chronic therapy, especially for non-cancer-related pain (or pain associated with other terminal illnesses), periodically reassess the continued need for the use of opioid analgesics.

2.5 Cessation of Therapy

When a patient no longer requires therapy with oxycodone hydrochloride gradually taper the dose to prevent signs and symptoms of withdrawal in the physically dependent patient.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Each oxycodone hydrochloride capsule has an opaque yellow cap imprinted in black ink with “LV” and an opaque white body imprinted in black ink with “901″ containing 5 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride, USP.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Oxycodone hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with respiratory depression in the absence of resuscitative equipment.

Oxycodone hydrochloride is contraindicated in any patient who has or is suspected of having paralytic ileus.

Oxycodone hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with acute or severe bronchial asthma or hypercarbia.

Oxycodone hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to oxycodone, oxycodone salts, or any components of the product.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Respiratory Depression

Respiratory depression is the primary risk of oxycodone hydrochloride. Respiratory depression occurs more frequently in elderly or debilitated patients and in those suffering from conditions accompanied by hypoxia, hypercapnia, or upper airway obstruction, in whom even moderate therapeutic doses may significantly decrease pulmonary ventilation.

Use oxycodone hydrochloride with extreme caution in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cor pulmonale and in patients having a substantially decreased respiratory reserve (e.g., severe kyphoscoliosis), hypoxia, hypercapnia, or preexisting respiratory depression. In such patients, even usual therapeutic doses of oxycodone hydrochloride may increase airway resistance and decrease respiratory drive to the point of apnea. Consider alternative non-opioid analgesics, and use oxycodone hydrochloride only under careful medical supervision at the lowest effective dose in such patients.

5.2 Misuse, Abuse and Diversion of Opioids

Oxycodone hydrochloride is an opioid agonist and a Schedule II controlled substance. Such drugs are sought by drug abusers and people with addiction disorders. Diversion of Schedule II products is an act subject to criminal penalty.

Oxycodone hydrochloride can be abused in a manner similar to other opioid agonists, legal or illicit. This should be considered when prescribing or dispensing oxycodone hydrochloride in situations where the physician or pharmacist is concerned about an increased risk of misuse, abuse, or diversion.

Oxycodone hydrochloride may be abused by crushing, chewing, snorting or injecting the product. These practices pose a significant risk to the abuser that could result in overdose and death. [See DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE (9)]

Concerns about abuse, addiction, and diversion should not prevent the proper management of pain. Healthcare professionals should contact their State Professional Licensing Board or State Controlled Substances Authority for information on how to prevent and detect abuse or diversion of this product.

5.3 Interactions with Alcohol and Drugs of Abuse

Oxycodone hydrochloride may be expected to have additive effects when used in conjunction with alcohol, other opioids, or illicit drugs that cause central nervous system depression because respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, coma or death may result.

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