Oxycodone Hydrochloride (Page 2 of 9)
2.3 Initial Dosage
Although it is not possible to list every condition that is important to the selection of the initial dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, attention must be given to:
- the daily dose, potency and characteristics of a full agonist or mixed agonist/antagonist the patient has been taking previously
- the reliability of the relative potency estimate to calculate the dose of oxycodone HCl needed
- the degree of opioid tolerance
- the general condition and medical status of the patient, including the patient’s weight and age
- the balance between pain management and adverse reactions
- the type and severity of the patient’s pain
- risk factors for abuse or addiction, including a prior history of abuse or addiction
Use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution as the First Opioid Analgesic
Initiate treatment with Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP: 5 to 15 mg every 4 to 6 hours as needed for pain. Titrate the dose based upon the individual patient’s response to their initial dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP. Patients with chronic pain should have their dosage given on an around-the-clock basis to prevent the reoccurrence of pain rather than treating the pain after it has occurred. This dose can then be adjusted to an acceptable level of analgesia taking into account side effects experienced by the patient.
For control of severe chronic pain, Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP should be administered on a regularly scheduled basis, every 4 to 6 hours, at the lowest dosage level that will achieve adequate analgesia.
Conversion from Other Opioids to Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution
There is inter-patient variability in the potency of opioid drugs and opioid formulations. Therefore, a conservative approach is advised when determining the total daily dosage of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP. It is safer to underestimate a patient’s 24-hour Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP than to overestimate the 24-hour Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP dosage and manage an adverse reaction due to overdose. If a patient has been receiving opioid-containing medications prior to taking Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, the potency of the prior opioid relative to oxycodone should be factored into the selection of the total daily dose (TDD) of oxycodone.
In converting patients from other opioids to Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP, close observation and adjustment of dosage based upon the patient’s response to Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP is imperative. Administration of supplemental analgesia for breakthrough or incident pain and titration of the total daily dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution may be necessary, especially in patients who have disease states that are changing rapidly.
Conversion from Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution to Extended-Release Oxycodone
The relative bioavailability of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP compounds to extended-release oxycodone is unknown, so conversion to extended-release tablets/capsules must be accompanied by close observation for signs of excessive sedation and respiratory depression.
2.4 Titration and Maintenance of Therapy
Individually titrate Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP to a dose that provides adequate analgesia and minimizes adverse reactions. Continually reevaluate patients receiving Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP to assess the maintenance of pain control and the relative incidence of adverse reactions, as well as monitoring for the development of addiction, abuse, or misuse [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Frequent communication is important among the prescriber, other members of the healthcare team, the patient, and the caregiver/family during periods of changing analgesic requirements, including initial titration.
If the level of pain increases after dosage stabilization, attempt to identify the source of increased pain before increasing the Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP dosage. If unacceptable opioid-related adverse reactions are observed, consider reducing the dosage. Adjust the dosage to obtain an appropriate balance between management of pain and opioid-related adverse reactions.
2.5 Safe Reduction or Discontinuation of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution
Do not abruptly discontinue Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution in patients who may be physically dependent on opioids. Rapid discontinuation of opioid analgesics in patients who are physically dependent on opioids has resulted in serious withdrawal symptoms, uncontrolled pain, and suicide. Rapid discontinuation has also been associated with attempts to find other sources of opioid analgesics, which may be confused with drug-seeking for abuse. Patients may also attempt to treat their pain or withdrawal symptoms with illicit opioids, such as heroin, and other substances.
When a decision has been made to decrease the dose or discontinue therapy in an opioid-dependent patient taking Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution , there are a variety of factors that should be considered, including the dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution the patient has been taking, the duration of treatment, the type of pain being treated, and the physical and psychological attributes of the patient. It is important to ensure ongoing care of the patient and to agree on an appropriate tapering schedule and follow-up plan so that patient and provider goals and expectations are clear and realistic. When opioid analgesics are being discontinued due to a suspected substance use disorder, evaluate and treat the patient, or refer for evaluation and treatment of the substance use disorder. Treatment should include evidence-based approaches, such as medication assisted treatment of opioid use disorder. Complex patients with co-morbid pain and substance use disorders may benefit from referral to a specialist.
There are no standard opioid tapering schedules that are suitable for all patients. Good clinical practice dictates a patient-specific plan to taper the dose of the opioid gradually. For patients on Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution who are physically opioid-dependent, initiate the taper by a small enough increment (e.g., no greater than 10% to 25% of the total daily dose) to avoid withdrawal symptoms, and proceed with dose-lowering at an interval of every 2 to 4 weeks. Patients who have been taking opioids for briefer periods of time may tolerate a more rapid taper.
It may be necessary to provide the patient with lower dosage strengths to accomplish a successful taper. Reassess the patient frequently to manage pain and withdrawal symptoms, should they emerge. Common withdrawal symptoms include restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, perspiration, chills, myalgia, and mydriasis. Other signs and symptoms also may develop, including irritability, anxiety, backache, joint pain, weakness, abdominal cramps, insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, or increased blood pressure, respiratory rate, or heart rate. If withdrawal symptoms arise, it may be necessary to pause the taper for a period of time or raise the dose of the opioid analgesic to the previous dose, and then proceed with a slower taper. In addition, monitor patients for any changes in mood, emergence of suicidal thoughts, or use of other substances.
When managing patients taking opioid analgesics, particularly those who have been treated for a long duration and/or with high doses for chronic pain, ensure that a multimodal approach to pain management, including mental health support (if needed), is in place prior to initiating an opioid analgesic taper. A multimodal approach to pain management may optimize the treatment of chronic pain, as well as assist with the successful tapering of the opioid analgesic [see Warnings and Precautions (5.14), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP 5 mg per 5 mL (1 mg/mL)
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP is contraindicated in patients with:
- Significant respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ]
- Acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ]
- Known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12) ]
- Hypersensitivity to oxycodone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Adverse Reactions (6) ]
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Risk of Accidental Overdose and Death due to Medication Errors
Dosing errors can result in accidental overdose and death. Avoid dosing errors that may result from confusion between mg and mL and confusion with oxycodone solutions of different concentrations, when prescribing, dispensing, and administering Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP. Ensure that the dose is communicated clearly and dispensed accurately. Always use the enclosed calibrated measuring cup when administering Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution to ensure the dose is measured and administered accurately. Do not use a teaspoon or a tablespoon to measure a dose. A household teaspoon or tablespoon is not an adequate measuring device. Given the inexactitude of the household spoon measure and the possibility of using a tablespoon instead of a teaspoon, which could lead to overdosage, it is strongly recommended that, if the enclosed calibrated measuring cup becomes lost, caregivers obtain and use a calibrated measuring device. Health care providers should recommend a calibrated device that can measure and deliver the prescribed dose accurately, and instruct caregivers to use extreme caution in measuring the dosage.
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