Oxycodone Hydrochloride (Page 4 of 9)
5.7 Risks from Concomitant Use with Benzodiazepines or Other CNS Depressants
Profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death may result from the concomitant use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (e.g., non-benzodiazepine sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol). Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioid analgesics alone. Because of similar pharmacological properties, it is reasonable to expect similar risk with the concomitant use of other CNS depressant drugs with opioid analgesics [see Drug Interactions (7)].
If the decision is made to prescribe a benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant concomitantly with an opioid analgesic, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use. In patients already receiving an opioid analgesic, prescribe a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant than indicated in the absence of an opioid, and titrate based on clinical response. If an opioid analgesic is initiated in a patient already taking a benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant, prescribe a lower initial dose of the opioid analgesic, and titrate based on clinical response. Follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
If concomitant use is warranted, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP is used with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (including alcohol and illicit drugs). Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the effects of concomitant use of the benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant have been determined. Screen patients for risk of substance use disorders, including opioid abuse and misuse, and warn them of the risk for overdose and death associated with the use of additional CNS depressants including alcohol and illicit drugs [see Drug Interactions (7) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].
5.8 Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease or in Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients
The use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP in patients with acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment is contraindicated.
Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease: Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution-treated patients with significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cor pulmonale, and those with a substantially decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre-existing respiratory depression are at increased risk of decreased respiratory drive including apnea, even at recommended dosages of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Elderly, Cachetic, or Debilitated Patients: Life-threatening respiratory depression is more likely to occur in elderly, cachectic, or debilitated patients because they may have altered pharmacokinetics or altered clearance compared to younger, healthier patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Monitor such patients closely, particularly when initiating and titrating Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP and when Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP is given concomitantly with other drugs that depress respiration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. Alternatively, consider the use of non-opioid analgesics in these patients.
5.9 Adrenal Insufficiency
Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use. Presentation of adrenal insufficiency may include non-specific symptoms and signs including nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. If adrenal insufficiency is suspected, confirm the diagnosis with diagnostic testing as soon as possible. If adrenal insufficiency is diagnosed, treat with physiologic replacement doses of corticosteroids. Wean the patient off of the opioid to allow adrenal function to recover and continue corticosteroid treatment until adrenal function recovers. Other opioids may be tried as some cases reported use of a different opioid without recurrence of adrenal insufficiency. The information available does not identify any particular opioids as being more likely to be associated with adrenal insufficiency.
5.10 Severe Hypotension
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP may cause severe hypotension including orthostatic hypotension and syncope in ambulatory patients. There is increased risk in patients whose ability to maintain blood pressure has already been compromised by a reduced blood volume or concurrent administration of certain CNS depressant drugs (e.g. phenothiazines or general anesthetics) [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Monitor these patients for signs of hypotension after initiating or titrating the dosage of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP. In patients with circulatory shock, Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP may cause vasodilation that can further reduce cardiac output and blood pressure. Avoid the use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP in patients with circulatory shock.
5.11 Risks of Use in Patients with Increased Intracranial Pressure, Brain Tumors, Head Injury, or Impaired Consciousness
In patients who may be susceptible to the intracranial effects of CO2 retention (e.g., those with evidence of increased intracranial pressure or brain tumors), Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP may reduce respiratory drive, and the resultant CO2 retention can further increase intracranial pressure. Monitor such patients for signs of sedation and respiratory depression, particularly when initiating therapy with Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP.
Opioids may also obscure the clinical course in a patient with a head injury. Avoid the use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP in patients with impaired consciousness or coma.
5.12 Risks of Use in Patients with Gastrointestinal Conditions
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP is contraindicated in patients with known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus.
The oxycodone in Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Opioids may cause increases in serum amylase. Monitor patients with biliary tract disease, including acute pancreatitis for worsening symptoms.
5.13 Increased Risk of Seizures in Patients with Seizure Disorders
The oxycodone in Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP may increase the frequency of seizures in patients with seizure disorders, and may increase the risk of seizures occurring in other clinical settings associated with seizures. Monitor patients with a history of seizure disorders for worsened seizure control during Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP therapy.
Do not abruptly discontinue Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution in a patient physically dependent on opioids. When discontinuing Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution in a physically dependent patient, gradually taper the dosage. Rapid tapering of oxycodone in a patient physically dependent on opioids may lead to a withdrawal syndrome and return of pain [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
Additionally, avoid the use of mixed agonist/antagonist (e.g., pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol) or partial agonist (e.g., buprenorphine) analgesics in patients who are receiving a full opioid agonist analgesic, including Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution. In these patients, mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms [see Drug Interactions (7) ].
5.15 Risks of Driving and Operating Machinery
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP may impair the mental or physical abilities needed to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating machinery. Warn patients not to drive or operate dangerous machinery unless they are tolerant to the effects of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP and know how they will react to the medication [see Patient Counseling Information (17)].
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