Oxycodone Hydrochloride (Page 5 of 9)

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following serious adverse reactions are described, or described in greater detail, in other sections:

The following adverse reactions associated with the use of oxycodone were identified in clinical studies or postmarketing reports. Because some of these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Serious adverse reactions associated with oxycodone use included: respiratory depression, respiratory arrest, circulatory depression, cardiac arrest, hypotension, and/or shock.

The common adverse reactions seen on initiation of therapy with oxycodone are dose-related and are typical opioid-related adverse reactions. The most frequent adverse events include nausea, constipation, vomiting, headache, and pruritus. The frequency of these reactions depended on several factors, including clinical setting, the patient’s level of opioid tolerance, and host factors specific to the individual.

In all patients for whom dosing information was available (n = 191) from the open-label and double-blind studies involving another formulation of immediate-release oxycodone, the following adverse events were recorded in oxycodone treated patients with an incidence ≥ 3%. In descending order of frequency they were: nausea, constipation, vomiting, headache, pruritus, insomnia, dizziness, asthenia, and somnolence.

The other less frequently observed adverse reactions from opioid analgesics, including Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP included:

Body as a Whole: abdominal pain, accidental injury, allergic reaction, back pain, chills and fever, fever, flu syndrome, infection, neck pain, pain, photosensitivity reaction, and sepsis.

Cardiovascular: deep thrombophlebitis, heart failure, hemorrhage, hypotension, migraine, palpitation, and tachycardia.

Digestive: anorexia, diarrhea, dyspepsia, dysphagia, gingivitis, glossitis, and nausea and vomiting.

Hemic and Lymphatic: anemia and leukopenia.

Metabolic and Nutritional: edema, gout, hyperglycemia, iron deficiency anemia and peripheral edema.

Musculoskeletal: arthralgia, arthritis, bone pain, myalgia and pathological fracture.

Nervous: agitation, anxiety, confusion, dry mouth, hypertonia, hypesthesia, nervousness, neuralgia, personality disorder, tremor, and vasodilation.

Respiratory: bronchitis, cough increased, dyspnea, epistaxis, laryngismus, lung disorder, pharyngitis, rhinitis, and sinusitis.

Skin and Appendages: herpes simplex, rash, sweating, and urticaria.

Special Senses: amblyopia.

Urogenital: urinary tract infection

Serotonin syndrome: Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported during concomitant use of opioids with serotonergic drugs.

Adrenal insufficiency: Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use.

Anaphylaxis: Anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in Oxycodone

Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP.

Androgen deficiency: Cases of androgen deficiency have occurred with chronic use of opioids [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Table 1 includes clinically significant drug interactions with Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP.

Table 1: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP
Inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6
Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP and CYP3A4 inhibitors can increase the plasma concentration of oxycodone, resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects. These effects could be more pronounced with concomitant use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP and CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors, particularly when an inhibitor is added after a stable dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP is achieved [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ]. After stopping a CYP3A4 inhibitor, as the effects of the inhibitor decline, the oxycodone plasma concentration will decrease [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ], resulting in decreased opioid efficacy or a withdrawal syndrome in patients who had developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
Intervention: If concomitant use is necessary, consider dosage reduction of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals. If a CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued, consider increasing the Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP dosage until stable drug effects are achieved [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) ]. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal.
Examples: Macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin), azole-antifungal agents (e.g. ketoconazole), protease inhibitors (e.g. ritonavir)
CYP3A4 Inducers
Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP and CYP3A4 inducers can decrease the plasma concentration of oxycodone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ], resulting in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence to oxycodone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ]. After stopping a CYP3A4 inducer, as the effects of the inducer decline, the oxycodone plasma concentration will increase [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ], which could increase or prolong both the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions, and may cause serious respiratory depression.
Intervention: If concomitant use is necessary, consider increasing the Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP dosage until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. If a CYP3A4 inducer is discontinued, consider Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP dosage reduction and monitor for signs of respiratory depression.
Examples: Rifampin, carbamazepine, phenytoin
Benzodiazepines and other Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants
Clinical Impact: Due to additive pharmacologic effect, the concomitant use of benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants including alcohol, increases the risk of respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death.
Intervention: Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is warranted, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.4, 5.7)].
Examples: Benzodiazepines and other sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol
Serotonergic Drugs
Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) ].
Intervention: If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP if serotonin syndrome is suspected.
Examples: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), triptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that affect the serotonin neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol), certain muscle relaxants (ie., cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue).
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
Clinical Impact: MAOI interactions with opioids may manifest as serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity (e.g., respiratory depression, coma) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ].
Intervention: The use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP is not recommended for patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping such treatment. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression.
Examples: phenelzine, tranylcypromine, linezolid
Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics
Clinical Impact: May reduce the analgesic effect of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms.
Intervention: Avoid concomitant use.
Examples: butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine, buprenorphine
Muscle Relaxants
Clinical Impact: Oxycodone may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of skeletal muscle relaxants and produce an increased degree of respiratory depression.
Intervention: Monitor patients for signs of respiratory depression that may be greater than otherwise expected and decrease the dosage of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP and/or the muscle relaxant as necessary.
Diuretics
Clinical Impact: Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone.
Intervention: Monitor patients for signs of diminished diuresis and/or effects on blood pressure and increase the dosage of the diuretic as needed.
Anticholinergic Drugs
Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
Intervention: Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP is used concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs.

All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.

This site is provided for educational and informational purposes only, in accordance with our Terms of Use, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner or other qualified health professional.

Privacy Policy | Copyright © 2022. All Rights Reserved.