Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy may cause neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ]. Available data with Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage.
Animal reproduction studies with oral administrations of oxycodone hydrochloride in rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis at doses 2.6 and 8.1 times, respectively, the human dose of 60 mg/day did not reveal evidence of teratogenicity or embryo-fetal toxicity. In several published studies, treatment of pregnant rats with oxycodone at clinically relevant doses and below, resulted in neurobehavioral effects in offspring [see Data]. Based on animal data, advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.
The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy for medical or nonmedical purposes can result in physical dependence in the neonate and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome shortly after birth.
Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome presents as irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea, and failure to gain weight. The onset, duration, and severity of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination of the drug by the newborn. Observe newborns for symptoms of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and manage accordingly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
Labor or Delivery
Opioids cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression and psycho-physiologic effects in neonates. An opioid antagonist, such as naloxone, must be available for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression in the neonate. Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP is not recommended for use in pregnant women during or immediately prior to labor, when other analgesic techniques are more appropriate. Opioid analgesics, including Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP, can prolong labor through actions which temporarily reduce the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions. However, this effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilation, which tends to shorten labor. Monitor neonates exposed to opioid analgesics during labor for signs of excess sedation and respiratory depression.
In embryo-fetal development studies in rats and rabbits, pregnant animals received oral doses of oxycodone hydrochloride administered during the period of organogenesis up to 16 mg/kg/day and up 25 mg/kg/day, respectively. These studies revealed no evidence of teratogenicity or embryo-fetal toxicity due to oxycodone. The highest doses tested in rats and rabbits were equivalent to approximately 2.6 and 8.1 times an adult human dose of 60 mg/day, respectively, on a mg/m2 basis. In published studies, offspring of pregnant rats administered oxycodone during gestation have been reported to exhibit neurobehavioral effects including altered stress responses, increased anxiety-like behavior (2 mg/kg/day IV from Gestation Day 8 to 21 and Postnatal Day 1, 3, and 5; 0.3-times an adult human dose of 60 mg/day, on a mg/m2 basis) and altered learning and memory (15 mg/kg/day orally from breeding through parturition; 2.4 times an adult human dose of 60 mg/day, on a mg/m2 basis).
Oxycodone is present in breast milk. Published lactation studies report variable concentrations of oxycodone in breast milk with administration of immediate-release oxycodone to nursing mothers in the early postpartum period. The lactation studies did not assess breastfed infants for potential adverse reactions. Lactation studies have not been conducted with Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP, and no information is available on the effects of the drug on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP or from the underlying maternal condition.
Monitor infants exposed to Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP through breast milk for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfed infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped, or when breast-feeding is stopped.
Chronic use of opioids may cause reduced fertility in females and males of reproductive potential. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see Adverse Reactions (6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
The safety and pharmacokinetics of a single-dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution were evaluated in an open-label clinical trial in 89 pediatric patients 2 years to less than 17 years of age with postoperative pain. However, definitive conclusions were not possible because of insufficient information.
Elderly patients (aged 65 years or older) may have increased sensitivity to oxycodone. In general, use caution when selecting a dose for an elderly patient, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Respiratory depression is the chief risk for elderly patients treated with opioids, and has occurred after large initial doses were administered to patients who were not opioid-tolerant or when opioids were co-administered with other agents that depress respiration. Titrate the dosage of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP slowly in geriatric patients and monitor closely for signs of central nervous system and respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
Oxycodone is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Since oxycodone is extensively metabolized in the liver, its clearance may decrease in patients with hepatic impairment. Initiate therapy in these patients with a lower than usual dosage of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP and titrate carefully. Monitor closely for adverse events such as respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Initiate therapy with a lower than usual dosage of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP and titrate carefully. Monitor closely for adverse events such as respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP contains oxycodone, a substance with a high potential for abuse similar to other opioids including fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxymorphone, and tapentadol. Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP can be abused and is subject to misuse, addiction, and criminal diversion [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
All patients treated with opioids require careful monitoring for signs of abuse and addiction, because use of opioid analgesic products carries the risk of addiction even under appropriate medical use.
Prescription drug abuse is the intentional non-therapeutic use of a prescription drug, even once, for its rewarding psychological or physiological effects.
Drug addiction is a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use and includes: a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance, and sometimes a physical withdrawal.
“Drug-seeking” behavior is very common in persons with substance use disorders. Drug-seeking tactics include emergency calls or visits near the end of office hours, refusal to undergo appropriate examination, testing, or referral, repeated “loss” of prescriptions, tampering with prescriptions, and reluctance to provide prior medical records or contact information for other treating health care provider(s). “Doctor shopping” (visiting multiple prescribers to obtain additional prescriptions) is common among drug abusers and people suffering from untreated addiction. Preoccupation with achieving adequate pain relief can be appropriate behavior in a patient with poor pain control.
Abuse and addiction are separate and distinct from physical dependence and tolerance. Health care providers should be aware that addiction may not be accompanied by concurrent tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence in all addicts. In addition, abuse of opioids can occur in the absence of true addiction.
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP, like other opioids, can be diverted for non-medical use into illicit channels of distribution. Careful record-keeping of prescribing information, including quantity, frequency, and renewal requests, as required by state and federal law, is strongly advised.
Proper assessment of the patient, proper prescribing practices, periodic re-evaluation of therapy, and proper dispensing and storage are appropriate measures that help to limit abuse of opioid drugs.
Risks Specific to Abuse of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, USP is for oral use only. Abuse of oxycodone poses a risk of overdose and death. The risk is increased with concurrent abuse of alcohol and other central nervous system depressants. Parenteral drug abuse is commonly associated with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis and HIV.
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