OXYMORPHONE HYDROCHLORIDE- oxymorphone hydrochloride tablet
Roxane Laboratories, Inc
As with any opioid drug product, it is necessary to adjust the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient’s prior analgesic treatment experience. In the selection of the initial dose of oxymorphone hydrochloride, attention should be given to the following:
- The total daily dose, potency and specific characteristics of the opioid the patient has been taking previously;
- The relative potency estimate used to calculate the equivalent oxymorphone dose needed;
- The patient’s degree of opioid tolerance;
- The age, general condition, and medical status of the patient;
- Concurrent non-opioid analgesics and other medications;
- The type and severity of the patient’s pain;
- The balance between pain control and adverse experiences;
- Risk factors for abuse or addiction, including a prior history of abuse or addiction.
Once therapy is initiated, frequently assess pain relief and other opioid effects. Titrate dose to adequate pain relief (generally mild or no pain). Patients who experience breakthrough pain may require dosage adjustment.
If signs of excessive opioid-related adverse experiences are observed, the next dose may be reduced. Adjust dosing to obtain an appropriate balance between pain relief and opioid-related adverse experiences. If significant adverse events occur before the therapeutic goal of mild or no pain is achieved, the events should be treated aggressively. Once adverse events are adequately managed, continue upward titration to an acceptable level of pain control.
During periods of changing analgesic requirements, including initial titration, frequent contact is recommended between physician, other members of the healthcare team, the patient, and the caregiver/family. Advise patients and family members of the potential common adverse reactions associated with changing opioid doses.
The dosing recommendations below, therefore, can only be considered as suggested approaches to what is actually a series of clinical decisions over time in the management of the pain of each individual patient.
Titrate dose to adequate pain relief (generally mild or no pain).
Patients who have not been receiving opioid analgesics should be started on oxymorphone hydrochloride in a dosing range of 10 to 20 mg every four to six hours depending on the initial pain intensity. If deemed necessary to initiate therapy at a lower dose (e.g., for renal or hepatic impairment or for geriatric patients), patients may be started with oxymorphone hydrochloride 5 mg. The dose should be titrated based upon the individual patient’s response to their initial dose of oxymorphone hydrochloride. This dose can then be adjusted to an acceptable level of analgesia taking into account the pain intensity and adverse reactions experienced by the patient.
Initiation of therapy with doses higher than 20 mg is not recommended because of potential serious adverse reactions [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].
Conversion from Parenteral Oxymorphone to Oxymorphone Hydrochloride:
Given oxymorphone hydrochloride’s absolute oral bioavailability of approximately 10%, patients receiving parenteral oxymorphone may be converted to oxymorphone hydrochloride by administering 10 times the patient’s total daily parenteral oxymorphone dose as oxymorphone hydrochloride, in four or six equally divided doses (e.g., [IV dose x 10] divided by 4 or 6). For example, approximately 10 mg of oxymorphone hydrochloride four times daily may be required to provide pain relief equivalent to a total daily IM dose of 4 mg oxymorphone. Due to patient variability with regard to opioid analgesic response, upon conversion patients should be closely monitored to ensure adequate analgesia and to minimize side effects.
Conversion from Other Oral Opioids to Oxymorphone Hydrochloride:
For conversion from other opioids to oxymorphone hydrochloride, physicians and other healthcare professionals are advised to refer to published relative potency information, keeping in mind that conversion ratios are only approximate. In general, it is safest to start oxymorphone hydrochloride therapy by administering half of the calculated total daily dose of oxymorphone hydrochloride in 4 to 6 equally divided doses, every 4 to 6 hours. The initial dose of oxymorphone hydrochloride can be gradually adjusted until adequate pain relief and acceptable side effects have been achieved.
During therapy, continual re-evaluation of the patient receiving oxymorphone hydrochloride is important, with special attention to the maintenance of pain control and the relative incidence of side effects associated with therapy. If the level of pain increases, effort should be made to identify the source of increased pain, while adjusting the dose [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
When the patient no longer requires therapy with oxymorphone hydrochloride, doses should be tapered gradually to prevent signs and symptoms of withdrawal in the physically dependent patient [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
Oxymorphone hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment. Use oxymorphone hydrochloride with caution in patients with mild hepatic impairment, starting with the lowest dose (e.g., 5 mg) and titrating slowly while carefully monitoring side effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) and
There are 57% and 65% increases in oxymorphone bioavailability in patients with moderate and severe renal impairment, respectively; treated with extended-release oxymorphone tablets [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Accordingly, oxymorphone hydrochloride should be administered cautiously and in reduced dosages to patients with creatinine clearance rates less than 50 mL/min.
Oxymorphone hydrochloride, like all opioid analgesics, should be started at 1/3 to 1/2 of the usual dose in patients who are concurrently receiving other central nervous system (CNS) depressants including sedatives or hypnotics, general anesthetics, phenothiazines, tranquilizers, and alcohol, because respiratory depression, hypotension and profound sedation, coma or death may result [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Drug Interactions (7.1)]. When combined therapy with any of the above medications is considered, the dose of one or both agents should be reduced.
Although no specific interaction between oxymorphone and monoamine oxidase inhibitors has been observed, oxymorphone hydrochloride is not recommended for use in patients who have received MAO inhibitors within 14 days [see Drug Interactions (7.5)].
Exercise caution in the selection of the starting dose of oxymorphone hydrochloride for an elderly patient by starting at the low end of the dosing range (e.g., 5 mg) [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
Respiratory depression is the chief hazard of oxymorphone hydrochloride. Respiratory depression may occur more frequently in elderly or debilitated patients as well as in those suffering from conditions accompanied by hypoxia or hypercapnia, when even moderate therapeutic doses may dangerously decrease pulmonary ventilation.
Administer oxymorphone hydrochloride with extreme caution to patients with conditions accompanied by hypoxia, hypercapnia, or decreased respiratory reserve such as: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cor pulmonale, severe obesity, sleep apnea syndrome, myxedema, kyphoscoliosis, CNS depression, or coma. In these patients, even usual therapeutic doses of oxymorphone may decrease respiratory drive while simultaneously increasing airway resistance to the point of apnea. Consider alternative non-opioid analgesics and use oxymorphone hydrochloride only under careful medical supervision at the lowest effective dose in such patients.
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