PAMIDRONATE DISODIUM- pamidronate disodium injection, solution
The pH of a 1% solution of pamidronate disodium in distilled water is approximately 8.3. Pamidronate disodium, a member of the group of chemical compounds known as bisphosphonates, is an analog of pyrophosphate. Pamidronate disodium is designated chemically as disodium dihydrogen (3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene) diphosphonate, and its structural formula is:
Pamidronate disodium is a white-to-practically-white powder. It is soluble in water and in 2N sodium hydroxide, sparingly soluble in 0.1N hydrochloric acid and in 0.1N acetic acid, and practically insoluble in organic solvents. Its molecular formula is C3 H9 NO7 P2 Na2 and its molecular weight is 279.1.
The principal pharmacologic action of pamidronate disodium is inhibition of bone resorption. Although the mechanism of antiresorptive action is not completely understood, several factors are thought to contribute to this action. Pamidronate disodium adsorbs to calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) crystals in bone and may directly block dissolution of this mineral component of bone. In vitro studies also suggest that inhibition of osteoclast activity contributes to inhibition of bone resorption. In animal studies, at doses recommended for the treatment of hypercalcemia, pamidronate disodium inhibits bone resorption apparently without inhibiting bone formation and mineralization. Of relevance to the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy is the finding that pamidronate disodium inhibits the accelerated bone resorption that results from osteoclast hyperactivity induced by various tumors in animal studies.
Cancer patients (n=24) who had minimal or no bony involvement were given an intravenous infusion of 30, 60, or 90 mg of pamidronate disodium over 4 hours and 90 mg pamidronate disodium over 24 hours (Table 1).
After administration of 30, 60, and 90 mg of pamidronate disodium over 4 hours, and 90 mg of pamidronate disodium over 24 hours, an overall mean ± SD of 46 ± 16% of the drug was excreted unchanged in the urine within 120 hours. Cumulative urinary excretion was linearly related to dose. The mean ± SD elimination half-life is 28 ± 7 hours. Mean ± SD total and renal clearances of pamidronate were 107 ± 50 mL/min and 49 ± 28 mL/min, respectively. The rate of elimination from bone has not been determined.
The pharmacokinetics of pamidronate were studied in cancer patients (n=19) with normal and varying degrees of renal impairment. Each patient received a single 90 mg dose of pamidronate disodium infused over 4 hours. The renal clearance of pamidronate in patients was found to closely correlate with creatinine clearance (see Figure 1). A trend toward a lower percentage of drug excreted unchanged in urine was observed in renally impaired patients. Adverse experiences noted were not found to be related to changes in renal clearance of pamidronate. Given the recommended dose, 90 mg infused over 4 hours, excessive accumulation of pamidronate in renally impaired patients is not anticipated if pamidronate disodium is administered on a monthly basis.
The pharmacokinetics of pamidronate were studied in male cancer patients at risk for bone metastases with normal hepatic function (n=6) and mild to moderate hepatic dysfunction (n=7). Each patient received a single 90 mg dose of pamidronate disodium infused over 4 hours. Although there was a statistically significant difference in the pharmacokinetics between patients with normal and impaired hepatic function, the difference was not considered clinically relevant. Patients with hepatic impairment exhibited higher mean AUC (53%) and Cmax (29%), and decreased plasma clearance (33%) values. Nevertheless, pamidronate was still rapidly cleared from plasma. Drug levels were not detectable in patients by 12 to 36 hours after drug infusion. Because pamidronate disodium is administered on a monthly basis, drug accumulation is not expected. No changes in pamidronate disodium dosing regimen are recommended for patients with mild to moderate abnormal hepatic function. Pamidronate disodium has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
|Dose(infusion rate)||Maximum Concentration (mcg/mL)||Percent of dose excreted in urine||Total Clearance (mL/min)||Renal Clearance (mL/min)|
|(4 hrs)||(0.14, 19.1%)||(14.0, 31.9%)||(44, 32.4%)||(27, 46.5%)|
|(4 hrs)||(0.57, 39.6%)||(47.4, 54.4%)||(56, 63.6%)||(28, 66.7%)|
|(4 hrs)||(0.74, 28.3%)||(25.8, 56.9%)||(37, 35.9%)||(16, 36.4%)|
|(24 hrs)||(1.97, 142.7%)||(10.2, 21.5%)||(58, 57.4%)||(42, 80.8%)|
After intravenous administration of radiolabeled pamidronate in rats, approximately 50% to 60% of the compound was rapidly adsorbed by bone and slowly eliminated from the body by the kidneys. In rats given 10 mg/kg bolus injections of radiolabeled pamidronate disodium, approximately 30% of the compound was found in the liver shortly after administration and was then redistributed to bone or eliminated by the kidneys over 24 to 48 hours. Studies in rats injected with radiolabeled pamidronate disodium showed that the compound was rapidly cleared from the circulation and taken up mainly by bones, liver, spleen, teeth, and tracheal cartilage. Radioactivity was eliminated from most soft tissues within 1 to 4 days; was detectable in liver and spleen for 1 and 3 months, respectively; and remained high in bones, trachea, and teeth for 6 months after dosing. Bone uptake occurred preferentially in areas of high bone turnover. The terminal phase of elimination half-life in bone was estimated to be approximately 300 days.
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