Care should be taken to ensure that no drug is retained in the mouth. PANCREAZE should not be crushed or chewed or mixed in foods having a pH greater than 4.5. These actions can disrupt the protective enteric coating resulting in early release of enzymes, irritation of oral mucosa, and/or loss of enzyme activity [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Patient Counseling Information (17)] . For patients who are unable to swallow intact delayed-release capsules, the delayed-release capsules may be carefully opened and the contents sprinkled to a small amount of acidic soft food with a pH of 4.5 or less, such as applesauce. The PANCREAZE-soft food mixture should be swallowed immediately and followed with water or juice to ensure complete ingestion.
Caution should be exercised when prescribing PANCREAZE to patients with gout, renal impairment, or hyperuricemia. Porcine-derived pancreatic enzyme products contain purines that may increase blood uric acid levels.
PANCREAZE is sourced from pancreatic tissue from swine used for food consumption. Although the risk that PANCREAZE will transmit an infectious agent to humans has been reduced by testing for certain viruses during manufacturing and by inactivating certain viruses during manufacturing, there is a theoretical risk for transmission of viral disease, including diseases caused by novel or unidentified viruses. Thus, the presence of porcine viruses that might infect humans cannot be definitely excluded. However, no cases of transmission of an infectious illness associated with the use of porcine pancreatic extracts have been reported.
Caution should be exercised when administering pancrelipase to a patient with a known allergy to proteins of porcine origin. Rarely, severe allergic reactions including anaphylaxis, asthma, hives, and pruritus have been reported with other pancreatic enzyme products with different formulations of the same active ingredient (pancrelipase). The risks and benefits of continued PANCREAZE treatment in patients with severe allergy should be taken into consideration with the overall clinical needs of the patient.
The most serious adverse reactions reported with different pancreatic enzyme products of the same active ingredient (pancrelipase) include fibrosing colonopathy, hyperuricemia and allergic reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5)].
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to the rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
The short-term safety of PANCREAZE was assessed in two clinical trials conducted in 57 patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) due to CF. Study 1 was conducted in 40 patients, ages 8 years to 57 years; Study 2 was conducted in 17 patients, ages 6 months to 30 months. In Study 1, PANCREAZE was administered in a dose of approximately 6,300 lipase units per kilogram per day for lengths of treatment ranging from 8 to 26 days; in Study 2, PANCREAZE was administered in four treatment arms (doses of 1,375, 2,875, 4,735, and 5,938 lipase units per kilogram per day) for lengths of treatment ranging from 6 to 11 days. The population was nearly evenly distributed in gender, and approximately 96% of patients were Caucasian.
Study 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 40 patients, ages 8 to 57 years, with EPI due to CF. In this study, patients received PANCREAZE at individually titrated doses (not to exceed 2,500 lipase units per kilogram per meal) for 14 days, followed by randomization to PANCREAZE or matching placebo for 7 days of treatment. The mean exposure to PANCREAZE during this study, including titration period and randomized withdrawal period, was 18 days.
The incidence of adverse events (regardless of causality) was higher during placebo treatment (60%) than during PANCREAZE treatment (40%). The most common adverse events reported during the study were gastrointestinal complaints, which were reported more commonly during placebo treatment (55%) than during PANCREAZE treatment (30%). The type and incidence of adverse events were similar in children (8 to 11 years), adolescents (12 to 17 years), and adults (greater than 18 years).
Table 1 enumerates treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred in at least 2 patients (greater than or equal to 10%) treated with either PANCREAZE or placebo in Study 1. Adverse events were classified by Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) terminology.
|MedDRA Primary System Organ Class Preferred Term||PANCREAZE (N=20) n (%)||Placebo (N=20) n (%)|
|Abdominal pain||2 (10%)||3 (15%)|
|Abdominal pain upper||1 (5%)||3 (15%)|
|Flatulence||1 (5%)||3 (15%)|
|Diarrhea||0 (0%)||4 (20%)|
|Abnormal feces||0 (0%)||3 (15%)|
|General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions|
|Fatigue||0 (0%)||2 (10%)|
Study 2 was a randomized, investigator-blinded, dose-ranging study of 17 patients, ages 6 months to 30 months, with EPI due to CF. All patients were transitioned from their usual PEP treatment to PANCREAZE at 375 lipase units per kilogram body weight per meal for a 6 day run-in period. Patients were then randomized to receive PANCREAZE at one of four doses (375, 750, 1,125, and 1,500 lipase units per kilogram body weight per meal) for 5 days. Adverse events were collected on patient diary entries and at each study visit.
The most commonly reported adverse events were gastrointestinal, including diarrhea and vomiting, and were similar in type and frequency across treatment arms and to those reported in the double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Study 1).
Postmarketing data for PANCREAZE have been available since 1988. The safety data are similar to those described below.
Delayed- and immediate-release pancreatic enzyme products with different formulations of the same active ingredient (pancrelipase) have been used for the treatment of patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency due to cystic fibrosis and other conditions, such as chronic pancreatitis. The long-term safety profile of these products has been described in the medical literature. The most serious adverse events included fibrosing colonopathy, distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS), recurrence of pre-existing carcinoma, and severe allergic reactions including anaphylaxis, asthma, hives, and pruritus. The most commonly reported adverse events were gastrointestinal disorders, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, flatulence, constipation and nausea, and skin disorders including pruritus, urticaria and rash. In general, these products have a well-defined and favorable risk-benefit profile in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.
Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
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