It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when PARCOPA® is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Use of the drug in patients below the age of 18 is not recommended.
The most common adverse reactions reported with carbidopa-levodopa therapy have included dyskinesias, such as choreiform, dystonic, and other involuntary movements and nausea.
The following other adverse reactions have been reported with carbidopa-levodopa:
Body as a Whole: chest pain, asthenia.
Cardiovascular: cardiac irregularities, hypotension, orthostatic effects including orthostatic hypotension, hypertension, syncope, phlebitis, palpitation.
Gastrointestinal: dark saliva, gastrointestinal bleeding, development of duodenal ulcer, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, dyspepsia, dry mouth, taste alterations.
Hematologic: agranulocytosis, hemolytic and nonhemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia.
Hypersensitivity: angioedema, urticaria, pruritus, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, bullous lesions (including pemphigus-like reactions).
Musculoskeletal: back pain, shoulder pain, muscle cramps.
Nervous System/Psychiatric: psychotic episodes including delusions, hallucinations, and paranoid ideation, neuroleptic malignant syndrome (see Warnings), bradykinetic episodes (“on-off” phenomenon), confusion, agitation, dizziness, somnolence, dream abnormalities including nightmares, insomnia, paresthesia, headache, depression with or without development of suicidal tendencies, dementia, increased libido. Convulsions also have occurred; however, a causal relationship with carbidopa-levodopa has not been established.
Respiratory: dyspnea, upper respiratory infection.
Skin: rash, increased sweating, alopecia, dark sweat.
Urogenital: urinary tract infection, urinary frequency, dark urine.
Laboratory Tests: decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit; abnormalities in alkaline phosphatase, SGOT (AST), SGPT (ALT), lactic dehydrogenase, bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), Coombs test; elevated serum glucose; white blood cells, bacteria, and blood in the urine.
Other adverse reactions that have been reported with levodopa alone and with various carbidopa-levodopa formulations, and may occur with PARCOPA® are:
Body as a Whole: abdominal pain and distress, fatigue.
Cardiovascular: myocardial infarction.
Gastrointestinal: gastrointestinal pain, dysphagia, sialorrhea, flatulence, bruxism, burning sensation of the tongue, heartburn, hiccups.
Metabolic: edema, weight gain, weight loss.
Musculoskeletal: leg pain.
Nervous System/Psychiatric: ataxia, extrapyramidal disorder, falling, anxiety, gait abnormalities, nervousness, decreased mental acuity, memory impairment, disorientation, euphoria, blepharospasm (which may be taken as an early sign of excess dosage; consideration of dosage reduction may be made at this time), trismus, increased tremor, numbness, muscle twitching, activation of latent Horner’s syndrome, peripheral neuropathy.
Respiratory: pharyngeal pain, cough.
Skin: malignant melanoma (see also Contraindications), flushing.
Special Senses: oculogyric crises, diplopia, blurred vision, dilated pupils.
Urogenital: urinary retention, urinary incontinence, priapism.
Miscellaneous: bizarre breathing patterns, faintness, hoarseness, malaise, hot flashes, sense of stimulation.
Laboratory Tests: decreased white blood cell count and serum potassium; increased serum creatinine and uric acid; protein and glucose in urine.
Management of acute overdosage with PARCOPA® is the same as management of acute overdosage with levodopa. Pyridoxine is not effective in reversing the actions of PARCOPA®.
General supportive measures should be employed, along with immediate gastric lavage. Intravenous fluids should be administered judiciously and an adequate airway maintained. Electrocardiographic monitoring should be instituted and the patient carefully observed for the development of arrhythmias; if required, appropriate anti-arrhythmic therapy should be given. The possibility that the patient may have taken other drugs as well as PARCOPA® should be taken into consideration. To date, no experience has been reported with dialysis; hence, its value in overdosage is not known.
Based on studies in which high doses of levodopa and/or carbidopa were administered, a significant proportion of rats and mice given single oral doses of levodopa of approximately 1500-2000 mg/kg are expected to die. A significant proportion of infant rats of both sexes are expected to die at a dose of 800 mg/kg. A significant proportion of rats are expected to die after treatment with similar doses of carbidopa. The addition of carbidopa in a 1:10 ratio with levodopa increases the dose at which a significant proportion of mice are expected to die to
Just prior to administration, GENTLY remove the tablet from the bottle with dry hands. IMMEDIATELY place the PARCOPA® Tablet on top of the tongue where it will dissolve in seconds, then swallow with saliva. Administration with liquid is not necessary.
The optimum daily dosage of PARCOPA® must be determined by careful titration in each patient. PARCOPA® is available in a 1:4 ratio of carbidopa to levodopa (PARCOPA® 25/100) as well as 1:10 ratio (PARCOPA® 25/250 and PARCOPA® 10/100). Tablets of the two ratios may be given separately or combined as needed to provide the optimum dosage.
Studies show that peripheral dopa decarboxylase is saturated by carbidopa at approximately 70 to 100 mg a day. Patients receiving less than this amount of carbidopa are more likely to experience nausea and vomiting.
Dosage is best initiated with one tablet of PARCOPA® 25/100 three times a day. This dosage schedule provides 75 mg of carbidopa per day. Dosage may be increased by one tablet every day or every other day, as necessary, until a dosage of eight tablets of PARCOPA® 25/100 a day is reached.
If PARCOPA® 10/100 is used, dosage may be initiated with one tablet three or four times a day. However, this will not provide an adequate amount of carbidopa for many patients. Dosage may be increased by one tablet every day or every other day until a total of eight tablets (2 tablets q.i.d.) is reached.
Levodopa must be discontinued at least twelve hours before starting PARCOPA® (carbidopa-levodopa orally disintegrating tablets). A daily dosage of PARCOPA® should be chosen that will provide approximately 25 percent of the previous levodopa dosage. Patients who are taking less than 1500 mg of levodopa a day should be started on one tablet of PARCOPA® 25/100 three or four times a day. The suggested starting dosage for most patients taking more than 1500 mg of levodopa is one tablet of PARCOPA® 25/250 three or four times a day.
Therapy should be individualized and adjusted according to the desired therapeutic response. At least 70 to 100 mg of carbidopa per day should be provided. When a greater proportion of carbidopa is required, one tablet of PARCOPA® 25/100 may be substituted for each tablet of PARCOPA® 10/100. When more levodopa is required, PARCOPA® 25/250 should be substituted for PARCOPA® 25/100 or PARCOPA® 10/100. If necessary, the dosage of PARCOPA® 25/250 may be increased by one-half or one tablet every day or every other day to a maximum of eight tablets a day. Experience with total daily dosages of carbidopa greater than 200 mg is limited.
Because both therapeutic and adverse responses occur more rapidly with PARCOPA® than with levodopa alone, patients should be monitored closely during the dose adjustment period. Specifically, involuntary movements will occur more rapidly with PARCOPA® than with levodopa. The occurrence of involuntary movements may require dosage reduction. Blepharospasm may be a useful early sign of excess dosage in some patients.
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