PEARSON MEPIVACAINE- mepivacaine hydrochloride injection, solution
THESE SOLUTIONS ARE INTENDED FOR DENTAL USE ONLY.
Mepivacaine Hydrochloride, a tertiary amine used as a local anesthetic, is 1-methyl-2′, 6′ — pipecoloxylidide monohydrochloride with the following structural formula:
It is a white, crystalline, odorless powder soluble in water, but very resistant to both acid and alkaline hydrolysis.
Levonordefrin, a sympathomimetic amine used as a vasoconstrictor in local anesthetic solution, is (-)--(1-Aminoethyl)-3, 4-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol with the following structural formula:
It is a white or buff-colored crystalline solid, freely soluble in aqueous solutions of mineral acids, but practically insoluble in water;
DENTAL CARTRIDGES MAY NOT BE AUTOCLAVED.
Mepivacaine hydrochloride injection 3% and Mepivacaine hydrochloride 2% with levonordefrin 1:20,000 injection are sterile solutions for injection.
|Each mL contains:||2%||3%|
|Mepivacaine Hydrochloride||20 mg||30 mg|
|Sodium Chloride||4 mg||6 mg|
|Potassium metabisulfite||1.2 mg||–|
|Edetate disodium||0.25 mg||–|
|Sodium Hydroxide q.s. ad pH; Hydrochloric Acid||0.5 mg||–|
|Water For Injection, qs. ad.||1 mL||1 mL|
|The pH of the 2% cartridge solution is adjusted between 3.3 and 5.5 with NaOH.|
|The pH of the 3% cartridge solution is adjusted between 4.5 and 6.8 with NaOH.|
Mepivacaine stabilizes the neuronal membrane and prevents the initiation and transmission of nerve impulses, thereby effecting local anesthesia.
Mepivacaine is rapidly metabolized, with only a small percentage of the anesthetic (5 to 10 percent) being excreted unchanged in the urine. Mepivacaine because of its amide structure, is not detoxified by the circulating plasma esterases. The liver is the principal site of metabolism, with over 50 percent of the administered dose being excreted into the bile as metabolites. Most of the metabolized Mepivacaine is probably resorbed in the intestine and then excreted into the urine since only a small percentage is found in the feces. The principal route of excretion is via the kidney. Most of the anesthetic and its metabolites are eliminated within 30 hours. It has been shown that hydroxylation and N-demethylation, which are detoxification reactions, play important roles in the metabolism of the anesthetic. Three metabolites of Mepivacaine have been identified from adult humans: two phenols, which are excreted almost exclusively as their glucuronide conjugates, and the N-demethylated compound (2′, 6′ — pipecoloxylidide).
The onset of action is rapid (30 to 120 seconds in the upper jaw; 1 to 4 minutes in the lower jaw) and Mepivacaine HCl 3% will ordinarily provide operating anesthesia of 20 minutes in the upper jaw and 40 minutes in the lower jaw.
Mepivacaine HCl 2% with Levonordefrin 1:20,000 provides anesthesia of longer duration for more prolonged procedures, 1 hour to 2.5 hours in the upper jaw and 2.5 hours to 5.5 hours in the lower jaw.
Mepivacaine does not ordinarily produce irritation or tissue damage.
Levonordefrin is a sympathomimetic amine used as a vasoconstrictor in local anesthetic solutions. It has pharmacologic activity similar to that of Epinephrine but it is more stable than Epinephrine. In equal concentrations, Levonordefrin is less potent than Epinephrine in raising blood pressure, and as a vasoconstrictor.
Pearson Mepivacaine Indications and Usage
Mepivacaine is indicated for production of local anesthesia for dental procedures by infiltration or nerve block in adults and pediatric patients.
Mepivacaine is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to amide-type local anesthetics.
RESUSCITATIVE EQUIPMENT AND DRUGS SHOULD BE IMMEDIATELY AVAILABLE. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Reactions resulting in fatality have occurred on rare occasions with the use of local anesthetics, even in the absence of a history of hypersensitivity.
Fatalities may occur with use of local anesthetics in the head and neck region as the result of retrograde arterial flow to vital CNS areas even when maximum recommended doses are observed. The practitioner should be alert to early evidence of alteration in sensorium or vital signs.
The solution which contains a vasoconstrictor (Mepivacaine HCl 2%) should be used with extreme caution for patients whose medical history and physical evaluation suggest the existence of hypertension, arteriosclerotic heart disease, cerebral vascular insufficiency, heart block, thyrotoxicosis and diabetes, etc.
The solution which contains a vasoconstrictor (Mepivacaine HCl 2%) also contains potassium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in non-asthmatic people. Mepivacaine HCl 3% is SULFITE FREE.
Mepivacaine, along with other local anesthetics, is capable of producing methemoglobinemia. The clinical signs of methemoglobinemia are cyanosis of the nail beds and lips, fatigue and weakness. If methemoglobinemia does not respond to administration of oxygen, administration of methylene blue intravenously 1-2 mg/kg body weight over a 5 minute period is recommended.
The American Heart Association has made the following recommendations regarding the use of local anesthetics with vasoconstrictors in patients with ischemic heart disease: “Vasoconstrictor agents should be used in local anesthesia solutions during dental practice only when it is clear that the procedure will be shortened or the analgesia rendered more profound. When a vasoconstrictor is indicated, extreme care should be taken to avoid intravascular injection. The minimum possible amount of vasoconstrictor should be used.” (Kaplan, EL, editor: Cardiovascular disease in dental practice, Dallas 1986, American Heart Association.)
The safety and effectiveness of Mepivacaine depend upon proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies.
The lowest dose that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and possible adverse effects. Injection of repeated doses of Mepivacaine may cause significant increases in blood levels with each repeated dose due to slow accumulation of the drug or its metabolites, or due to slower metabolic degradation than normal.
Tolerance varies with the status of the patient. Debilitated, elderly patients, acutely ill patients, and children should be given reduced doses commensurate with their weight and physical status.
Mepivacaine should be used with caution in patients with a history of severe disturbances of cardiac rhythm or heart block.
INJECTIONS SHOULD ALWAYS BE MADE SLOWLY WITH ASPIRATION TO AVOID INTRAVASCULAR INJECTION AND THEREFORE SYSTEMIC REACTION TO BOTH LOCAL ANESTHETIC AND VASOCONSTRICTOR.
If sedatives are employed to reduce patient apprehension, use reduced doses, since local anesthetic agents, like sedatives, are central nervous system depressants which in combination may have an additive effect. Young children should be given minimal doses of each agent.
Changes in sensorium such as excitation, disorientation or drowsiness may be early indications of a high blood level of the drug and may occur following inadvertent intravascular administration or rapid absorption of Mepivacaine.
Local anesthetic procedures should be used with caution when there is inflammation and/or sepsis in the region of the proposed injection.
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