Pentazocine and Naloxone (Page 3 of 6)

PRECAUTIONS

Porphyria

Particular caution should be exercised in administering pentazocine to patients with porphyria since it may provoke an acute attack in susceptible individuals.

Cardiovascular Disease

Pentazocine can elevate blood pressure, possibly through the release of endogenous catecholamines. Particular caution should be exercised in conditions where alterations in vascular resistance and blood pressure might be particularly undesirable, such as in the acute phase of myocardial infarction.

Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets should be used with caution in patients with myocardial infarction who have nausea or vomiting.

Impaired Renal or Hepatic Function

Decreased metabolism of pentazocine by the liver in extensive liver disease may predispose to accentuation of side effects. Although laboratory tests have not indicated that pentazocine causes or increases renal or hepatic impairment, the drug should be administered with caution to patients with such impairment.

Biliary Surgery

Narcotic drug products are generally considered to elevate biliary tract pressure for varying periods following their administration. Some evidence suggests that pentazocine may differ from other marketed narcotics in this respect (i.e., it causes little or no elevation in biliary tract pressures). The clinical significance of these findings, however, is not yet known.

Information for Patients

Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).

Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse

Inform patients that the use of Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets, even when taken as recommended, can result in addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death [see WARNINGS ]. Instruct patients not to share Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets with others and to take steps to protect Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets from theft or misuse.

Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression

Inform patients of the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression, including information that the risk is greatest when starting Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets or when the dosage is increased, and that it can occur even at recommended dosages [see WARNINGS ]. Advise

patients how to recognize respiratory depression and to seek medical attention if breathing difficulties develop.

Accidental Ingestion

Inform patients that accidental ingestion, especially by children, may result in respiratory depression or death [see WARNINGS ]. Instruct patients to take steps to store Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets securely and to dispose of unused Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets by consulting their pharmacist for proper disposal instructions.

Interactions with Benzodiazepines and Other CNS Depressants

Inform patients and caregivers that potentially fatal additive effects may occur if Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets are used with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, and not to use these drugs concomitantly unless supervised by a healthcare provider [see WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS; Drug Interactions ].

Serotonin Syndrome

Inform patients that opioids could cause a rare but potentially life-threatening condition resulting from concomitant administration of serotonergic drugs. Warn patients of the symptoms of serotonin syndrome and to seek medical attention right away if symptoms develop. Instruct patients to inform their healthcare provider if they are taking, or plan to take serotonergic medications [see PRECAUTIONS; Drug Interactions ].

Adrenal Insufficiency

Inform patients that opioids could cause adrenal insufficiency, a potentially life threatening condition. Adrenal insufficiency may present with non-specific symptoms and signs such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. Advise patients to seek medical attention if they experience a constellation of these symptoms [see WARNINGS ].

Important Administration Instructions

Instruct patients how to properly take Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets.

Advise patients not to adjust the dose of Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets without consulting with a physician or other healthcare professional.
If patients have been receiving treatment with Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets for more than a few weeks and cessation of therapy is indicated, counsel them on the importance of safely tapering the dose as abruptly discontinuation of the medication could precipitate withdrawal symptoms. Provide a dose schedule to accomplish a gradual discontinuation of the medication. [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ]

Hypotension

Inform patients that Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets may cause orthostatic hypotension and syncope. Instruct patients how to recognize symptoms of low blood pressure and how to reduce the risk of serious consequences should hypotension occur (e.g., sit or lie down, carefully rise from a sitting or lying position) [see WARNINGS ].

Anaphylaxis

Inform patients that anaphylaxis have been reported with ingredients contained in Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets. Advise patients how to recognize such a reaction and when to seek medical attention [see Contraindications, Adverse Reactions].

Pregnancy

Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
Inform female patients of reproductive potential that prolonged use of Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated [see WARNINGS , PRECAUTIONS; Pregnancy ]
Embryo-Fetal Toxicity
Inform female patients of reproductive potential that Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets can cause fetal harm and to inform the healthcare provider of a known or suspected pregnancy [see PRECAUTIONS; Pregnancy ].

Lactation

Advise nursing mothers to monitor infants for increased sleepiness (more than usual), breathing difficulties, or limpness. Instruct nursing mothers to seek immediate medical care if they notice these signs [see PRECAUTIONS; Nursing Mothers ].

Driving or Operating Heavy Machinery

Inform patients that Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets may impair the ability to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. Advise patients not to perform such tasks until they know how they will react to the medication [see PRECAUTIONS ].

Constipation

Advise patients of the potential for severe constipation, including management instructions and when to seek medical attention (see ADVERSE REACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

Disposal of Unused Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets

Advise patients to properly dispose of unused Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets. Advise patients to throw the drug in the household trash following these steps. 1) Remove them from their original containers and mix them with an undesirable substance, such as used coffee grounds or kitty litter (this makes the drug less appealing to children and pets, and unrecognizable to people who may intentionally go through the trash seeking drugs). 2) Place the mixture in a sealable bag, empty can, or other container to prevent the drug from leaking or breaking out of a garbage bag, or to dispose of in accordance with local state guidelines and/or regulations.

Interactions

Drug Interactions

Benzodiazepines and Other Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants

Due to additive pharmacologic effect, the concomitant use of benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants including alcohol, benzodiazepines and other sedative hypnotics, anxiolytics, and tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, and other opioids, can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death.

Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation [see WARNINGS ].

Serotonergic Drugs

The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), triptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that affect the serotonin neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol), and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue), has resulted in serotonin syndrome. [see PRECAUTIONS; Information for Patients ].

If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets if serotonin syndrome is suspected.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

Concomitant use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) with Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets may cause CNS excitation and hypertension through their respective effects on catecholamines. Caution should therefore be observed in administering Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets to patients who are currently receiving MAOIs or who have received them within the preceding 14 days.

Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics

Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics such as butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine, buprenorphine, may reduce the analgesic effect of Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms.

Avoid concomitant use of these drugs.

Muscle Relaxants

The Concomitant use of opioids and muscle relaxants may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of skeletal muscle relaxants and produce an increased degree of respiratory depression.

Monitor patients for signs of respiratory depression that may be greater than otherwise expected and decrease the dosage of Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets and/or the muscle relaxant as necessary.

Diuretics

Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone.

Monitor patients for signs of diminished diuresis and/or effects on blood pressure and increase the dosage of the diuretic as needed

Anticholinergic Drugs

The concomitant use of anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.

Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets is used concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs.

Tobacco

Smoking tobacco could enhance the metabolic clearance rate of pentazocine reducing the clinical effectiveness of a standard dose of pentazocine.

All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.

This site is provided for educational and informational purposes only, in accordance with our Terms of Use, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner or other qualified health professional.

Privacy Policy | Copyright © 2022. All Rights Reserved.