Pentazocine and Naloxone (Page 4 of 6)

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenesis

Long-term animal studies have not been completed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of the combination or individual components of pentazocine and naloxone.

Mutagenesis

Studies to evaluate the mutagenic potential of the components of pentazocine and naloxone have not been conducted.

Impairment of Fertility

Studies in animals to evaluate the impact of pentazocine and naloxone on fertility have not been completed.

The daily administration of 4 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg pentazocine subcutaneously to female rats during a 14 day pre-mating period and until the 13th day of pregnancy did not have any adverse effects on the fertility rate.

Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy can cause neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. There are no available data with Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. In animal reproduction studies, pentazocine administered subcutaneously to pregnant hamsters during the early gestational period produced neural tube defects (i.e., exencephaly and cranioschisis) at 2.6 times the maximum daily dose (MDD). In pregnant rats administered pentazocine:naloxone during organogenesis, there were increased incidences of resorptions and extra ribs at 0.2 times the MDD. There was no evidence of malformations in rats or rabbits [see Data ]. Based on animal data, advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions

Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy for medical or nonmedical purposes can result in physical dependence in the neonate and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome shortly after birth.

Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome presents as irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea and failure to gain weight. The onset, duration, and severity of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination of the drug by the newborn. Observe newborns for symptoms of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and manage accordingly [see WARNINGS ].

Labor or Delivery

Opioids cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression and psycho-physiologic effects in neonates. An opioid antagonist, such as naloxone, must be available for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression in the neonate. Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets are not recommended for use in pregnant women during or immediately prior to labor, when other analgesic techniques are more appropriate. Opioid analgesics, including Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets, can prolong labor through actions which temporarily reduce the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions. However, this effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilation, which tends to shorten labor. Monitor neonates exposed to opioid analgesics during labor for signs of excess sedation and respiratory depression.

Data

Animal Data

In a published report, a single dose of pentazocine administered to pregnant hamsters on Gestation Day 8 increased the incidence of neural tube defects (exencephaly and cranioschisis) at a dose of 196 mg/kg, SC (2.6-times the maximum daily human dose (MDD) of 600 mg/day pentazocine (12 tablets) on a mg/m2 basis). No evidence of neural tube defects were reported following a dose of 98 mg/kg (1.3 times the MDD).


Animal reproduction studies testing the combination of pentazocine and naloxone during organogenesis have been completed in rats and rabbits. In rats, a pentazocine:naloxone dose of 64 mg/kg:0.64 mg/kg via oral gavage from Gestation Day 6 to 15 increased the incidences of resorptions and extra ribs (0.2 times the maximum daily human dose of pentazocine via 12 tablets on a mg/m2 basis). There were no clear treatment related effects in rabbits treated from Gestation Day 6 to 18 with a pentazocine:naloxone dose of up to 64 mg/kg:0.64 mg/kg via oral gavage (0.3-times the maximum daily human dose of pentazocine via 12 tablets on a mg/m2 basis).

Lactation

Risk Summary

Pentazocine is excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets are administered to a nursing woman.

The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets or from the underlying maternal condition.

Clinical Considerations

Infants exposed to pentazocine and naloxone through breast milk should be monitored for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfed infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped, or when breast-feeding is stopped.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 12 years have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Elderly patients (aged 65 years or older) may have increased sensitivity to Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets. In general, use caution when selecting a dosage for an elderly patient, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Respiratory depression is the chief risk for elderly patients treated with opioids, and has occurred after large initial doses were administered to patients who were not opioid-tolerant or when opioids were co-administered with other agents that depress respiration. Titrate the dosage of Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets slowly in geriatric patients [see WARNINGS ].

Pentazocine and naltrexone are known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following adverse reactions associated with the use of pentazocine and naltrexone were identified in clinical studies or postmarketing reports. Because some of these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Cardiovascular Hypertension, hypotension, circulatory depression, tachycardia, syncope.

Respiratory Rarely, respiratory depression.

Acute CNS Manifestations Hallucinations (usually visual), disorientation, and confusion.

Other CNS Effects Grand mal convulsions, increase in intracranial pressure, dizziness, lightheadedness, hallucinations, sedation, euphoria, headache, confusion, disorientation; infrequently weakness, disturbed dreams, insomnia, syncope, and depression; and rarely tremor, irritability, excitement, tinnitus.

Autonomic Sweating; infrequently flushing; and rarely chills.

Gastrointestinal Nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, anorexia, dry mouth, biliary tract spasm, and rarely abdominal distress.

Allergic- Edema of the face; anaphylactic shock; dermatitis, including pruritus; flushed skin, including plethora; infrequently rash, and rarely urticaria.

Ophthalmic Visual blurring and focusing difficulty, miosis.

Hematologic Depression of white blood cells (especially granulocytes), with rare cases of agranulocytosis, which is usually reversible, moderate transient eosinophilia.

Dependence and Withdrawal Symptoms — (See WARNINGS , PRECAUTIONS , and DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE Sections).

Other Urinary retention, paresthesia, serious skin reactions, including erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome toxic epidermal necrolysis, and alterations in rate or strength of uterine contractions during labor.

Serotonin syndrome: Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported during concomitant use of opioids with serotonergic drugs.
Adrenal insufficiency: Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use.
Anaphylaxis: Anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in Pentazocine and Naloxone Tablets.
Androgen deficiency: Cases of androgen deficiency have occurred with chronic use of opioids [see Clinical Pharmacology].

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