There are no data on the presence of pancrelipase in either human or animal milk, the effects on the breastfed infant or the effects on milk production. Pancrelipase is minimally absorbed systemically following oral administration, therefore maternal use is not expected to result in clinically relevant exposure of breastfed infants to the drug. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for PERTZYE and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from PERTZYE or from the underlying maternal condition.
The short-term safety and efficacy of PERTZYE were assessed in a randomized, double- blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of 24 patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency due to cystic fibrosis, including 10 patients between 8 and 17 years of age. The safety and efficacy in 8 to 17 year old patients in this study were similar to adult patients [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Clinical Studies (14)].
The safety and efficacy of pancreatic enzyme products with different formulations of pancrelipase consisting of the same active ingredient (lipases, proteases, and amylases) for treatment of pediatric patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency due to cystic fibrosis have been described in the medical literature and through clinical experience.
Dosing of pediatric patients should be in accordance with recommended guidance from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Consensus Conferences [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. Doses of other pancreatic enzyme products exceeding 6,000 lipase units/kg of body weight per meal have been associated with fibrosing colonopathy and colonic strictures in children less than 12 years of age [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
In a clinical study, a 10 year-old patient was administered lipase doses over the maximum lipase dose of 2500 lipase units/kg/meal (Dose Stabilization 2799 lipase units/kg/meal; Wash-out/Re-Stabilization 2783 lipase units/kg/meal; and PERTZYE 2720 lipase units/kg/meal). Despite the administration of this slightly (10%) higher than recommended dose, no gastrointestinal AEs were reported for this subject.
Chronic high doses of pancreatic enzyme products have been associated with fibrosing colonopathy and colonic strictures [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. High doses of pancreatic enzyme products have been associated with hyperuricosuria and hyperuricemia, and should be used with caution in patients with a history of hyperuricemia, gout, or renal impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Pancrelipase is a pancreatic enzyme product consisting of a mixture of enzymes including lipases, proteases, and amylases, and is an extract derived from porcine pancreatic glands.
PERTZYE (pancrelipase) delayed-release capsule for oral administration contains bicarbonate-buffered enteric-coated microspheres ranging in size from 0.8 to 1.4 mm in diameter for 4,000 USP units of lipase and 0.8 to 2.2 mm in diameter for 8,000, 16,000, and 24,000 USP units of lipase.
4,000 USP units of lipase; 14,375 USP units of protease; 15,125 USP units of amylase. Delayed-Release Capsules have a clear body printed in green with “4” and a clear cap printed with a green circular stripe and “DCI”. The imprinting ink on the capsule contains FD&C Blue #1, D&C Yellow #10, black iron oxide, dehydrated alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, propylene glycol, shellac and ammonium hydroxide.
8,000 USP units of lipase; 28,750 USP units of protease; 30,250 USP units of amylase. Delayed-Release Capsules have a clear body printed in blue with “8” and a clear cap printed with a blue circular stripe and “DCI”. The imprinting ink on the capsule contains FD&C Blue #1, ethanol, methanol, n-butyl alcohol, propylene glycol, shellac and ammonium hydroxide.
16,000 USP units of lipase; 57,500 USP units of protease; 60,500 USP units of amylase. Delayed-Release Capsules have a clear body printed in red with “16” and a clear cap printed with a red circular stripe and “DCI”. The imprinting ink on the capsule contains FD&C Red #40, povidone, titanium dioxide, dehydrated alcohol, sodium hydroxide, butyl alcohol, propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, and shellac.
24,000 USP units of lipase; 86,250 USP units of protease; 90,750 USP units of amylase. Delayed-Release Capsules have a clear body printed in purple with “24” and a clear cap printed with a purple circular stripe and “DCI”. The imprinting ink on the capsule contains FD&C Blue #2, D&C Red #7, titanium dioxide, strong ammonia solution, propylene glycol, butyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, dehydrated alcohol, and shellac.
Inactive ingredients in PERTZYE include cellulose acetate phthalate, diethyl phthalate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium starch glycolate, talc, and ursodiol, and are contained in hard gelatin capsules.
The pancreatic enzymes in PERTZYE catalyze the hydrolysis of fats to monoglyceride, glycerol and free fatty acids, proteins into peptides and amino acids, and starches into dextrins and short chain sugars such as maltose and maltotriose in the duodenum and proximal small intestine, thereby acting like digestive enzymes physiologically secreted by the pancreas.
The pancreatic enzymes in PERTZYE are enteric-coated to minimize destruction or inactivation in gastric acid. PERTZYE is expected to release most of the enzymes in vivo at pH greater than 5.5. Pancreatic enzymes are not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in appreciable amounts.
Carcinogenicity, genetic toxicology, and animal fertility studies have not been performed with pancrelipase.
The short-term safety and efficacy of PERTZYE were evaluated in a randomized, double- blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study conducted in 24 patients ages 8 to 43 years (mean age = 20 years) with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency due to cystic fibrosis.6 The efficacy analysis population included 21 patients who completed both double-blind treatment periods. Patients were randomized to receive PERTZYE at individually titrated doses (not to exceed 2,500 lipase units per kilogram per meal) or matching placebo for 6 to 8 days of treatment, followed by crossover to the alternate treatment for an additional 6 to 8 days.
The primary efficacy endpoint was the mean difference in coefficient of fat absorption (CFA) between PERTZYE and placebo treatment. The CFA was determined by a 72-hour stool collection during both treatments, when both fat ingestion and excretion were measured.
Mean CFA was 83% with PERTZYE treatment compared to 46% with placebo treatment. The mean difference in CFA was 36 percentage points in favor of PERTZYE treatment with 95% CI: (28, 45) and p<0.001.
The coefficient of nitrogen absorption (CNA) was determined by a 72-hour stool collection during both treatments, when nitrogen excretion was measured and nitrogen ingestion from a controlled diet was estimated (based on the assumption that proteins contain 16% nitrogen). Each patient’s CNA during placebo treatment was used as their no-treatment CNA value. Mean CNA was 79% with PERTZYE treatment compared to 47% with placebo treatment. The mean difference in CNA was 32 percentage points in favor of PERTZYE treatment and this was a statistically significant change.
There were no differences between children and adults in the severity of pancreatic insufficiency (placebo response) or in the magnitude of the response to PERTZYE.
- Borowitz DS, Grand RJ, Durie PR, et al. Use of pancreatic enzyme supplements for patients with cystic fibrosis in the context of fibrosing colonopathy. Journal of Pediatrics. 1995; 127: 681-684.
- Borowitz DS, Baker RD, Stallings V. Consensus report on nutrition for pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology Nutrition. 2002 Sep; 35: 246-259.
- Stallings VA, Start LJ, Robinson KA, et al. Evidence-based practice recommendations for nutrition-related management of children and adults with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency: results of a systematic review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2008; 108: 832-839.
- Smyth RL, Ashby D, O’Hea U, et al. Fibrosing colonopathy in cystic fibrosis: results of a case-control study. Lancet. 1995; 346: 1247-1251.
- FitzSimmons SC, Burkhart GA, Borowitz DS, et al. High-dose pancreatic-enzyme supplements and fibrosing colonopathy in children with cystic fibrosis. New England Journal of Medicine. 1997; 336: 1283-1289.
- Konstan MW, et al. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter, Cross-Over Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness and Safety of a Novel Pancrelipase (PANCRECARB® MS-16) in Reducing Steatorrhea in Children and Adults with Cystic Fibrosis. 2008 North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference. Abstract #618.
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