There is no information regarding the presence of pioglitazone and metformin hydrochloride or pioglitazone in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Pioglitazone is present in rat milk; however, due to species-specific differences in lactation physiology, animal data may not reliably predict drug levels in human milk. Limited published studies report that metformin is present in human milk [see Data]. However, there is insufficient information on the effects of metformin on the breastfed infant and no available information on the effects of metformin on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for pioglitazone and metformin hydrochloride and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from pioglitazone and metformin hydrochloride or from the underlying maternal condition.
Published clinical lactation studies report that metformin is present in human milk which resulted in infant doses approximately 0.11% to 1% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 0.13 and 1. However, the studies were not designed to definitely establish the risk of use of metformin during lactation because of small sample size and limited adverse event data collected in infants.
Discuss the potential for unintended pregnancy with premenopausal women as therapy with pioglitazone and metformin hydrochloride, may result in ovulation in some anovulatory women.
Safety and effectiveness of pioglitazone and metformin hydrochloride in pediatric patients have not been established.
Pioglitazone and metformin hydrochloride is not recommended for use in pediatric patients based on adverse effects observed in adults, including fluid retention and congestive heart failure, fractures, and urinary bladder tumors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1,5.3,5.6,5.7)].
A total of 92 patients (15.2%) treated with pioglitazone in the three pooled 16- to 26-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, monotherapy trials were ≥65 years old and two patients (0.3%) were ≥75 years old. In the two pooled 16- to 24-week add-on to sulfonylurea trials, 201 patients (18.7%) treated with pioglitazone were ≥65 years old and 19 (1.8%) were ≥75 years old. In the two pooled 16- to 24-week add-on to metformin trials, 155 patients (15.5%) treated with pioglitazone were ≥65 years old and 19 (1.9%) were ≥75 years old. In the two pooled 16- to 24-week add-on to insulin trials, 272 patients (25.4%) treated with pioglitazone were ≥65 years old and 22 (2.1%) were ≥75 years old.
In PROactive Trial, 1068 patients (41%) treated with pioglitazone were ≥65 years old and 42 (1.6%) were ≥75 years old.
In pharmacokinetic studies with pioglitazone, no significant differences were observed in pharmacokinetic parameters between elderly and younger patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Although clinical experiences have not identified differences in effectiveness and safety between the elderly (≥65 years) and younger patients, these conclusions are limited by small sample sizes for patients ≥75 years old.
Controlled clinical studies of metformin did not include sufficient numbers of elderly patients to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients, although other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and young patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy and the higher risk of lactic acidosis. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
Metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis increases with the degree of renal impairment. Pioglitazone and metformin hydrochloride is contraindicated in severe renal impairment, patients with an eGFR below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Use of metformin in patients with hepatic impairment has been associated with some cases of lactic acidosis. Pioglitazone and metformin hydrochloride is not recommended in patients with hepatic impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
During controlled clinical trials, one case of overdose with pioglitazone was reported. A male patient took 120 mg per day for four days, then 180 mg per day for seven days. The patient denied any clinical symptoms during this period.
In the event of overdosage, appropriate supportive treatment should be initiated according to the patient’s clinical signs and symptoms.
Overdose of metformin hydrochloride has occurred, including ingestion of amounts greater than 50 grams. Hypoglycemia was reported in approximately 10% of cases, but no causal association with metformin hydrochloride has been established. Lactic acidosis has been reported in approximately 32% of metformin overdose cases [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Metformin is dialyzable with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions. Therefore, hemodialysis may be useful for removal of accumulated metformin from patients in whom metformin overdosage is suspected.
Pioglitazone and metformin hydrochloride tablets, USP are a thiazolidinediones and biguanide combination product that contains two oral antidiabetic medications: pioglitazone hydrochloride and metformin hydrochloride.Pioglitazone [(±)-5-[[4-[2-(5-ethyl-2-pyridinyl) ethoxy]phenyl]methyl]-2,4-] thiazolidinedione monohydrochloride contains one asymmetric carbon, and the compound is synthesized and used as the racemic mixture. The two enantiomers of pioglitazone interconvert in vivo. No differences were found in the pharmacologic activity between the two enantiomers. The structural formula is as shown:
Pioglitazone hydrochloride USP is an off-white to pale yellow color powder that has a molecular formula of C19 H20 N2 O3 S•HCl and a molecular weight of 392.90 daltons. It is soluble in N,N -dimethylformamide, slightly soluble in anhydrous ethanol, very slightly soluble in acetone and acetonitrile, practically insoluble in water, and insoluble in ether.Metformin hydrochloride USP (N,N -dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide hydrochloride) is a white crystalline powder with a molecular formula of C4 H11 N5 •HCl and a molecular weight of 165.62. Metformin hydrochloride is freely soluble in water and is practically insoluble in acetone, ether, and chloroform. The pKa of metformin is 12.4. The pH of a 1% aqueous solution of metformin hydrochloride is 6.68. The structural formula is as shown:
Pioglitazone and metformin hydrochloride is available as a tablet for oral administration containing 15 mg pioglitazone (as the base) with 500 mg metformin hydrochloride USP (15 mg/500 mg) or 15 mg pioglitazone (as the base) with 850 mg metformin hydrochloride USP (15 mg/850 mg) formulated with the following excipients: carboxymethylcellulose calcium, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol 6000, talc, and titanium dioxide.
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