Piperacillin and Tazobactam (Page 3 of 9)

2.8 Compatibility with Aminoglycosides

Due to the in vitro inactivation of aminoglycosides by piperacillin, piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP and aminoglycosides are recommended for separate administration. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP and aminoglycosides should be reconstituted, diluted, and administered separately when concomitant therapy with aminoglycosides is indicated [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].

In circumstances where co-administration via Y-site is necessary, piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is compatible for simultaneous co-administration via Y-site infusion only with the following aminoglycosides under the following conditions:

Table 5: Compatibility with Aminoglycosides
Aminoglycoside Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection Dose (grams) Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection Diluent Volume * (mL) Aminoglycoside Concentration Range (mg/mL) Acceptable Diluents
*
Diluent volumes apply only to single vials
The concentration ranges in Table 3 are based on administration of the aminoglycoside in divided doses (10-15 mg/kg/day in two daily doses for amikacin and 3-5 mg/kg/day in three daily doses for gentamicin). Administration of amikacin or gentamicin in a single daily dose or in doses exceeding those stated above via Y-site with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection has not been evaluated. See package insert for each aminoglycoside for complete Dosage and Administration instructions.

Amikacin

  1. 2.25 3.375 4.5
  1. 50 100 150

1.75 — 7.5

0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose

Gentamicin

  1. 2.25 3.375 4.5
  1. 50 100 150

0.7 — 3.32

0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose

Only the concentration and diluents for amikacin or gentamicin with the dosages of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP listed above have been established as compatible for co-administration via Y-site infusion. Simultaneous co-administration via Y-site infusion in any manner other than listed above may result in inactivation of the aminoglycoside by piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP.

Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP is not compatible with tobramycin for simultaneous co-administration via Y-site infusion. Compatibility of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP with other aminoglycosides has not been established.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP is a white to off-white powder in vials:

  • 2.25 g single-dose vial (piperacillin sodium equivalent to 2 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.25 g of tazobactam).
  • 3.375 g single-dose vial (piperacillin sodium equivalent to 3 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.375 g of tazobactam).
  • 4.5 g single-dose vial (piperacillin sodium equivalent to 4 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.5 g of tazobactam).

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is contraindicated in patients with a history of allergic reactions to any of the penicillins, cephalosporins, or beta-lactamase inhibitors.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Hypersensitivity Adverse Reactions

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic/anaphylactoid) reactions (including shock) have been reported in patients receiving therapy with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin, cephalosporin, or carbapenem hypersensitivity or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. Before initiating therapy with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions. If an allergic reaction occurs, piperacillin and tazobactam for injection should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

5.2 Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions

Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection may cause severe cutaneous adverse reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. If patients develop a skin rash they should be monitored closely and piperacillin and tazobactam for injection discontinued if lesions progress.

5.3 Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

Cases of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) have been reported in pediatric and adult patients treated with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection. Signs and symptoms of HLH may include fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and cytopenia. If HLH is suspected, discontinue piperacillin and tazobactam for injection immediately and institute appropriate management.

5.4 Hematologic Adverse Reactions

Bleeding manifestations have occurred in some patients receiving beta-lactam drugs, including piperacillin. These reactions have sometimes been associated with abnormalities of coagulation tests such as clotting time, platelet aggregation and prothrombin time, and are more likely to occur in patients with renal failure. If bleeding manifestations occur, piperacillin and tazobactam for injection should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

The leukopenia/neutropenia associated with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection administration appears to be reversible and most frequently associated with prolonged administration.

Periodic assessment of hematopoietic function should be performed, especially with prolonged therapy, i.e., ≥ 21 days [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)] .

5.5 Central Nervous System Adverse Reactions

As with other penicillins, piperacillin and tazobactam for injection may cause neuromuscular excitability or seizures. Patients receiving higher doses, especially patients with renal impairment may be at greater risk for central nervous system adverse reactions. Closely monitor patients with renal impairment or seizure disorders for signs and symptoms of neuromuscular excitability or seizures [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)] .

5.6 Nephrotoxicity in Critically Ill Patients

The use of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection was found to be an independent risk factor for renal failure and was associated with delayed recovery of renal function as compared to other beta-lactam antibacterial drugs in a randomized, multicenter, controlled trial in critically ill patients [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.1)]. Based on this study, alternative treatment options should be considered in the critically ill population. If alternative treatment options are inadequate or unavailable, monitor renal function during treatment with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.4)]. .

Combined use of piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin may be associated with an increased incidence of acute kidney injury [see Drug Interactions ( 7.3)].

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