Piperacillin is excreted in human milk; tazobactam concentrations in human milk have not been studied. No information is available on the effects of piperacillin and tazobactam on the breastfed child or on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from piperacillin and tazobactam for injection or from the underlying maternal condition.
The safety and effectiveness of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection for intra-abdominal infections, and nosocomial pneumonia have been established in pediatric patients 2 months of age and older.
Use of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection in pediatric patients 2 months of age and older with intra-abdominal infections including appendicitis and/or peritonitis is supported by evidence from well-controlled studies and pharmacokinetic studies in adults and in pediatric patients. This includes a prospective, randomized, comparative, open-label clinical trial with 542 pediatric patients 2 to 12 years of age with intra-abdominal infections (including appendicitis and/or peritonitis), in which 273 pediatric patients received piperacillin/tazobactam [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Use of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection in pediatric patients 2 months of age and older with nosocomial pneumonia is supported by evidence from well-controlled studies in adults with nosocomial pneumonia, a simulation study performed with a population pharmacokinetic model, and a retrospective, cohort study of pediatric patients with nosocomial pneumonia in which 140 pediatric patients were treated with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and 267 patients treated with comparators (which included ticarcillin-clavulanate, carbapenems, ceftazidime, cefepime, or ciprofloxacin) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
The safety and effectiveness of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection have not been established in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age [see Clinical Pharmacology (12) and Dosage and Administration (2)].
Dosage of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection in pediatric patients with renal impairment has not been determined.
Patients over 65 years are not at an increased risk of developing adverse effects solely because of age. However, dosage should be adjusted in the presence of renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection contains 56 mg (2.43 mEq) of sodium per gram of piperacillin in the combination product. At the usual recommended doses, patients would receive between 672 and 896 mg/day (29.22 and 38.96 mEq) of sodium. The geriatric population may respond with a blunted natriuresis to salt loading. This may be clinically important with regard to such diseases as congestive heart failure.
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
In patients with creatinine clearance ≤ 40 mL/min and dialysis patients (hemodialysis and CAPD), the intravenous dose of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection should be reduced to the degree of renal function impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
Dosage adjustment of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is not warranted in patients with hepatic cirrhosis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
There have been postmarketing reports of overdose with piperacillin/tazobactam. The majority of those events experienced, including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, have also been reported with the usual recommended dosages. Patients may experience neuromuscular excitability or seizures if higher than recommended doses are given intravenously (particularly in the presence of renal failure) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Treatment should be supportive and symptomatic according the patient’s clinical presentation. Excessive serum concentrations of either piperacillin or tazobactam may be reduced by hemodialysis. Following a single 3.375 g dose of piperacillin/tazobactam, the percentage of the piperacillin and tazobactam dose removed by hemodialysis was approximately 31% and 39%, respectively [see Clinical Pharmacology (12)].
Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP is injectable antibacterial combination products consisting of the semisynthetic antibacterial piperacillin sodium and the beta-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam sodium for intravenous administration.
Piperacillin sodium is derived from D(-)-α-aminobenzyl-penicillin. The chemical name of piperacillin sodium is sodium (2S ,5R ,6R)-6-[(R)-2-(4-ethyl-2,3-dioxo-1-piperazine-carboxamido)-2-phenylacetamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1- azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate. The chemical formula is C23 H26 N5 NaO7 S and the molecular weight is 539.5. The chemical structure of piperacillin sodium is:
Tazobactam sodium, a derivative of the penicillin nucleus, is a penicillanic acid sulfone. Its chemical name is sodium (2S, 3S, 5R)-3-methyl-7-oxo-3-(1H -1,2,3-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate-4,4-dioxide. The chemical formula is C10 H11 N4 NaO5 S and the molecular weight is 322.3. The chemical structure of tazobactam sodium is:
Each piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP 2.25 g single dose vial contains an amount of drug sufficient for withdrawal of piperacillin sodium equivalent to 2 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.25 g of tazobactam.
Each piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP 3.375 g single dose vial contains an amount of drug sufficient for withdrawal of piperacillin sodium equivalent to 3 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.375 g of tazobactam.
Each piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP 4.5 g single dose vial contains an amount of drug sufficient for withdrawal of piperacillin sodium equivalent to 4 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.5 g of tazobactam.
Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection contains a total of 2.43 mEq (56 mg) of sodium (Na+) per gram of piperacillin in the combination product.
Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is an antibacterial drug [see Microbiology (12.4)].
a Piperacillin and tazobactam were given in combination, infused over 30 minutes.
b Numbers in parentheses are coefficients of variation [CV%].
Cmax : maximum observed concentration, AUC: Area under the curve, CL=clearance, CLR = Renal clearance V=volume of distribution, T1/2 = elimination half-life
|2.25 g||134||131 ||257||17.4||0.79||—|
|3.375 g||242||242 ||207||15.1||0.84||140|
|4.5 g||298||322 ||210||15.4||0.84||—|
|2.25 g||15||16 ||258||17||0.77||—|
|3.375 g||24||25 ||251||14.8||0.68||166|
|4.5 g||34||39.8 ||206||14.7||0.82||—|
Peak plasma concentrations of piperacillin and tazobactam are attained immediately after completion of an intravenous infusion of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection. Piperacillin plasma concentrations, following a 30-minute infusion of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, were similar to those attained when equivalent doses of piperacillin were administered alone. Steady-state plasma concentrations of piperacillin and tazobactam were similar to those attained after the first dose due to the short half-lives of piperacillin and tazobactam.
Both piperacillin and tazobactam are approximately 30% bound to plasma proteins. The protein binding of either piperacillin or tazobactam is unaffected by the presence of the other compound. Protein binding of the tazobactam metabolite is negligible.
Piperacillin and tazobactam are widely distributed into tissues and body fluids including intestinal mucosa, gallbladder, lung, female reproductive tissues (uterus, ovary, and fallopian tube), interstitial fluid, and bile. Mean tissue concentrations are generally 50% to 100% of those in plasma. Distribution of piperacillin and tazobactam into cerebrospinal fluid is low in subjects with non-inflamed meninges, as with other penicillins (see Table 8).
|Table 8 : Piperacillin/Tazobactam Concentrations in Selected Tissues and Fluids after Single 4 g/0.5 g 30-min IV Infusion of Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection|
|Tissue or Fluid||Na||Sampling periodb (h)||Mean PIP Concentration Range (mg/L)||Tissue: Plasma Range||Tazo Concentration Range (mg/L)||Tazo Tissue: Plasma Range|
|Skin||35||0.5 to 4.5||34.8 to 94.2||0.60 to 1.1||4.0 to 7.7||0.49 to 0.93|
|Fatty Tissue||37||0.5 to 4.5||4.0 to 10.1||0.097 to 0.115||0.7 to 1.5||0.10 to 0.13|
|Muscle||36||0.5 to 4.5||9.4 to 23.3||0.29 to 0.18||1.4 to 2.7||0.18 to 0.30|
|Proximal Intestinal Mucosa||7||1.5 to 2.5||31.4||0.55||10.3||1.15|
|Distal Intestinal Mucosa||7||1.5 to 2.5||31.2||0.59||14.5||2.1|
|Appendix||22||0.5 to 2.5||26.5 to 64.1||0.43 to 0.53||9.1 to 18.6||0.80 to 1.35|
|a Each subject provided a single sample. b Time from the start of the infusion|
Piperacillin is metabolized to a minor microbiologically active desethyl metabolite. Tazobactam is metabolized to a single metabolite that lacks pharmacological and antibacterial activities.
Following single or multiple piperacillin and tazobactam for injection doses to healthy subjects, the plasma half-life of piperacillin and of tazobactam ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 hours and was unaffected by dose or duration of infusion.
Both piperacillin and tazobactam are eliminated via the kidney by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Piperacillin is excreted rapidly as unchanged drug with 68% of the administered dose excreted in the urine. Tazobactam and its metabolite are eliminated primarily by renal excretion with 80% of the administered dose excreted as unchanged drug and the remainder as the single metabolite. Piperacillin, tazobactam and desethyl piperacillin are also secreted into the bile.
After the administration of single doses of piperacillin/tazobactam to subjects with renal impairment, the half-life of piperacillin and of tazobactam increases with decreasing creatinine clearance. At creatinine clearance below 20 mL/min, the increase in half-life is twofold for piperacillin and fourfold for tazobactam compared to subjects with normal renal function. Dosage adjustments for piperacillin and tazobactam for injection are recommended when creatinine clearance is below 40 mL/min in patients receiving the usual recommended daily dose of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection. See Dosage and Administration (2) for specific recommendations for the treatment of patients with renal-impairment.
Hemodialysis removes 30% to 40% of a piperacillin/tazobactam dose with an additional 5% of the tazobactam dose removed as the tazobactam metabolite. Peritoneal dialysis removes approximately 6% and 21% of the piperacillin and tazobactam doses, respectively, with up to 16% of the tazobactam dose removed as the tazobactam metabolite. For dosage recommendations for patients undergoing hemodialysis [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
The half-life of piperacillin and of tazobactam increases by approximately 25% and 18%, respectively, in patients with hepatic cirrhosis compared to healthy subjects. However, this difference does not warrant dosage adjustment of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection due to hepatic cirrhosis.
Piperacillin and tazobactam pharmacokinetics were studied in pediatric patients 2 months of age and older. The clearance of both compounds is slower in the younger patients compared to older children and adults.
In a population PK analysis, estimated clearance for 9 month-old to 12 year-old patients was comparable to adults, with a population mean (SE) value of 5.64 (0.34) mL/min/kg. The piperacillin clearance estimate is 80% of this value for pediatric patients 2 to 9 months old. In patients younger than 2 months of age, clearance of piperacillin is slower compared to older children; however, it is not adequately characterized for dosing recommendations. The population mean (SE) for piperacillin volume of distribution is 0.243 (0.011) L/kg and is independent of age.
The impact of age on the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin and tazobactam was evaluated in healthy male subjects, aged 18 to 35 years (n=6) and aged 65 to 80 years (n=12). Mean half-life for piperacilln and tazobactam was 32% and 55% higher, respectively, in the elderly compared to the younger subjects. This difference may be due to age-related changes in creatinine clearance.
The effect of race on piperacillin and tazobactam was evaluated in healthy male volunteers. No difference in piperacillin or tazobactam pharmacokinetics was observed between Asian (n=9) and Caucasian (n=9) healthy volunteers who received single 4/0.5 g doses.
The potential for pharmacokinetic drug interactions between piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and aminoglycosides, probenecid, vancomycin, heparin, vecuronium, and methotrexate has been evaluated [see Drug Interactions (7)].
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