Piperacillin and Tazobactam

PIPERACILLIN AND TAZOBACTAM- piperacillin sodium and tazobactam sodium injection, powder, for solution
APP Pharmaceuticals, LLC

Rx only

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and other antibacterial drugs, piperacillin and tazobactam for injection should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

DESCRIPTION

Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is an injectable antibacterial combination product consisting of the semisynthetic antibiotic piperacillin sodium and the ß-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam sodium for intravenous administration.

Piperacillin sodium is derived from D(-)-α-aminobenzyl-penicillin. The chemical name of piperacillin sodium is sodium (2S,5R,6R)-6-[(R)-2-(4-ethyl-2,3-dioxo-1-piperazinecarboxamido)-2-phenylacetamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate. The chemical structure of piperacillin sodium is:

piperacillin-structure#1
(click image for full-size original)

C23 H26 N5 NaO7 S M.W. 539.5

Tazobactam sodium, a derivative of the penicillin nucleus, is a penicillanic acid sulfone. Its chemical name is sodium (2S,3S,5R)-3-methyl-7-oxo-3-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate-4,4-dioxide. The chemical structure of tazobactam sodium is:

piperacillin-structure2
(click image for full-size original)

C10 H11 N4 NaO5 S M.W. 322.3

Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, piperacillin/tazobactam parenteral combination, is a white to off-white sterile, cryodesiccated powder consisting of piperacillin and tazobactam as their sodium salts packaged in glass vials. The product does not contain excipients or preservatives.

Each piperacillin and tazobactam for injection 2.25 g single dose vial contains an amount of drug sufficient for withdrawal of piperacillin sodium equivalent to 2 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.25 g of tazobactam.

Each piperacillin and tazobactam for injection 3.375 g single dose vial contains an amount of drug sufficient for withdrawal of piperacillin sodium equivalent to 3 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.375 g of tazobactam.

Each piperacillin and tazobactam for injection 4.5 g single dose vial contains an amount of drug sufficient for withdrawal of piperacillin sodium equivalent to 4 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.5 g of tazobactam.

Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is a monosodium salt of piperacillin and a monosodium salt of tazobactam containing a total of 2.35 mEq (54 mg) of Na+ per gram of piperacillin in the combination product.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Adults

Peak plasma concentrations of piperacillin and tazobactam are attained immediately after completion of an intravenous infusion of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection. Piperacillin plasma concentrations, following a 30-minute infusion of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, were similar to those attained when equivalent doses of piperacillin were administered alone, with mean peak plasma concentrations of approximately 134, 242, and 298 mcg/mL for the 2.25 g, 3.375 g, and 4.5 g piperacillin and tazobactam doses, respectively. The corresponding mean peak plasma concentrations of tazobactam were 15, 24 and 34 mcg/mL, respectively.

Following a 30-minute IV infusion of 3.375 g piperacillin and tazobactam for injection every 6 hours, steady-state plasma concentrations of piperacillin and tazobactam were similar to those attained after the first dose. In like manner, steady-state plasma concentrations were not different from those attained after the first dose when 2.25 g or 4.5 g doses of piperacillin and tazobactam were administered via 30-minute infusions every 6 hours. Steady-state plasma concentrations after 30-minute infusions every 6 hours are provided in Table 1.

Following single or multiple piperacillin and tazobactam doses to healthy subjects, the plasma half-life of piperacillin and of tazobactam ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 hours and was unaffected by dose or duration of infusion.

Piperacillin is metabolized to a minor microbiologically active desethyl metabolite. Tazobactam is metabolized to a single metabolite that lacks pharmacological and antibacterial activities. Both piperacillin and tazobactam are eliminated via the kidney by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Piperacillin is excreted rapidly as unchanged drug with 68% of the administered dose excreted in the urine. Tazobactam and its metabolite are eliminated primarily by renal excretion with 80% of the administered dose excreted as unchanged drug and the remainder as the single metabolite. Piperacillin, tazobactam and desethyl piperacillin are also secreted into the bile.

Both piperacillin and tazobactam are approximately 30% bound to plasma proteins. The protein binding of either piperacillin or tazobactam is unaffected by the presence of the other compound. Protein binding of the tazobactam metabolite is negligible.

Piperacillin and tazobactam are widely distributed into tissues and body fluids including intestinal mucosa, gallbladder, lung, female reproductive tissues (uterus, ovary, and fallopian tube), interstitial fluid, and bile. Mean tissue concentrations are generally 50% to 100% of those in plasma. Distribution of piperacillin and tazobactam into cerebrospinal fluid is low in subjects with non-inflamed meninges, as with other penicillins.

After the administration of single doses of piperacillin/tazobactam to subjects with renal impairment, the half-life of piperacillin and of tazobactam increases with decreasing creatinine clearance. At creatinine clearance below 20 mL/min, the increase in half-life is twofold for piperacillin and fourfold for tazobactam compared to subjects with normal renal function. Dosage adjustments for piperacillin and tazobactam for injection are recommended when creatinine clearance is below 40 mL/min in patients receiving the usual recommended daily dose of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section for specific recommendations for the treatment of patients with renal insufficiency).

Hemodialysis removes 30% to 40% of a piperacillin/tazobactam dose with an additional 5% of the tazobactam dose removed as the tazobactam metabolite. Peritoneal dialysis removes approximately 6% and 21% of the piperacillin and tazobactam doses, respectively, with up to 16% of the tazobactam dose removed as the tazobactam metabolite. For dosage recommendations for patients undergoing hemodialysis, see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section.

The half-life of piperacillin and of tazobactam increases by approximately 25% and 18%, respectively, in patients with hepatic cirrhosis compared to healthy subjects. However, this difference does not warrant dosage adjustment of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection due to hepatic cirrhosis.

TABLE 1: STEADY STATE MEAN PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS IN ADULTS AFTER 30-MINUTE INTRAVENOUS INFUSION OF PIPERACILLIN/TAZOBACTAM EVERY 6 HOURS

PIPERACILLIN

Plasma Concentrations** (mcg/mL)

AUC**

(mcg•hr/mL)

Piperacillin/

Tazobactam

Dosea

No. of

Evaluable

Subjects

30 min

1 hr

2 hr

3 hr

4 hr

6 hr

AUC0-6

2.25 g

8

134

(14)

57

(14)

17.1

(23)

5.2

(32)

2.5

(35)

0.9

(14)b

131 (14)

3.375 g

6

242

(12)

106

(8)

34.6

(20)

11.5

(19)

5.1

(22)

1

(10)

242 (10)

4.5 g

8

298

(14)

141

(19)

46.6

(28)

16.4

(29)

6.9

(29)

1.4

(30)

322 (16)

TAZOBACTAM

Plasma Concentrations** (mcg/mL)

AUC**

(mcg•hr/mL)

Piperacillin/

Tazobactam

Dosea

No. of

Evaluable

Subjects

30 min

1 hr

2 hr

3 hr

4 hr

6 hr

AUC0-6

2.25 g

8

14.8

(14)

7.2

(22)

2.6

(30)

1.1

(35)

0.7

(6)c

<0.5

16 (21)

3.375 g

6

24.2

(14)

10.7

(7)

4.0

(18)

1.4

(21)

0.7

(16)b

<0.5

25 (8)

4.5 g

8

33.8

(15)

17.3

(16)

6.8

(24)

2.8

(25)

1.3

(30)

<0.5

39.8 (15)

** Numbers in parentheses are coefficients of variation (CV%).

a: Piperacillin and tazobactam were given in combination.

b: N = 4

c: N = 3

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