Anemia has occurred in NSAID-treated patients. This may be due to occult or gross blood loss, fluid retention, or an incompletely described effect on erythropoiesis. If a patient treated with piroxicam has any signs or symptoms of anemia, monitor hemoglobin or hematocrit.
NSAIDs, including piroxicam, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Co-morbid conditions such as coagulation disorders, concomitant use of warfarin, other anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs (e.g., aspirin), SSRIs, and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may increase this risk. Monitor these patients for signs of bleeding [see Drug Interactions (7)] .
The pharmacological activity of piroxicam in reducing inflammation, and possibly fever, may diminish the utility of diagnostic signs in detecting infections.
Because serious GI bleeding, hepatotoxicity, and renal injury can occur without warning symptoms or signs, consider monitoring patients on long-term NSAID treatment with a complete blood count (CBC) and a chemistry profile periodically [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3, 5.6)] .
Because of reports of adverse eye findings with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, it is recommended that patients who develop visual complaints during treatment with piroxicam have ophthalmic evaluations.
The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- GI Bleeding, Ulceration and Perforation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Hepatotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Heart Failure and Edema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
- Anaphylactic Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
- Serious Skin Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]
- Hematologic Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In patients taking piroxicam or other NSAIDs, the most frequently reported adverse experiences occurring in approximately 1% to 10% of patients are:
Cardiovascular System: Edema
Digestive System: Anorexia, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, flatulence, nausea, vomiting
Nervous System: Dizziness, headache, vertigo
Skin and Appendages: Pruritus, rash
Special Senses: Tinnitus
Additional adverse experiences reported occasionally include:
Cardiovascular System: Palpitations
Digestive System: Stomatitis
Nervous System: Drowsiness
Special Senses: Blurred vision
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of piroxicam. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Body As a Whole: Fever, infection, sepsis, anaphylactic reactions, appetite changes, death, flu-like syndrome, pain (colic), serum sickness
Cardiovascular System: Congestive heart failure, hypertension, tachycardia, syncope, arrhythmia, exacerbation of angina, hypotension, myocardial infarction, vasculitis
Digestive System: Dyspepsia, elevated liver enzymes, gross bleeding/perforation, heartburn, ulcers (gastric/duodenal), dry mouth, esophagitis, gastritis, glossitis, hematemesis, hepatitis, jaundice, melena, rectal bleeding, eructation, liver failure, pancreatitis
Hemic and Lymphatic System: Anemia, increased bleeding time, e cchymosis, eosinophilia, epistaxis, leukopenia, purpura, petechial rash, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia
Hypersensitivity : Positive ANA
Metabolic and Nutritional: Weight changes, Fluid retention, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia
Nervous System: Anxiety, asthenia, confusion, depression, dream abnormalities, insomnia, malaise, nervousness, paresthesia, somnolence, tremors, akathisia, convulsions, coma, hallucinations, meningitis, mood alterations
Respiratory System: Asthma, dyspnea, respiratory depression, pneumonia
Skin and Appendages: Alopecia, bruising, desquamation, erythema, photosensitivity, sweat, angioedema, toxic epidermal necrosis, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, onycholysis, Stevens Johnson Syndrome, urticaria, vesiculobullous reaction
Special Senses : Conjunctivitis, hearing impairment, swollen eyes
Urogenital System: Abnormal renal function, c ystitis, dysuria, hematuria, hyperkalemia, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, oliguria/polyuria, proteinuria, renal failure, glomerulonephritis
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: Female fertility decreased
See Table 1 for clinically significant drug interactions with piroxicam.
Table 1: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Piroxicam
|Drugs That Interfere with Hemostasis|
|Clinical Impact:|| |
|Intervention:||Monitor patients with concomitant use of piroxicam with anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin), antiplatelet drugs (e.g., aspirin), SSRIs, and SNRIs for signs of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)] .|
|Clinical Impact:||Controlled clinical studies showed that the concomitant use of NSAIDs and analgesic doses of aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of NSAIDs alone. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of an NSAID and aspirin was associated with a significantly increased incidence of GI adverse reactions as compared to use of the NSAID alone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] .|
|Intervention:||Concomitant use of piroxicam and analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended because of the increased risk of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]. Piroxicam is not a substitute for low dose aspirin for cardiovascular protection.|
|ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Beta-Blockers|
|Clinical Impact:|| |
|Clinical Impact:||Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, showed that NSAIDs reduced the natriuretic effect of loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics in some patients. This effect has been attributed to the NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of piroxicam with diuretics, observe patients for signs of worsening renal function, in addition to assuring diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] .|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of piroxicam with digoxin has been reported to increase the serum concentration and prolong the half-life of digoxin.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of piroxicam and digoxin, monitor serum digoxin levels.|
|Clinical Impact:||NSAIDs have produced elevations in plasma lithium levels and reductions in renal lithium clearance . The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20%. This effect has been attributed to NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of piroxicam and lithium, monitor patients for signs of lithium toxicity.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of NSAIDs and methotrexate may increase the risk for methotrexate toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction).|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of piroxicam and methotrexate, monitor patients for methotrexate toxicity.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of piroxicam and cyclosporine may increase cyclosporine’s nephrotoxicity.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of piroxicam and cyclosporine, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.|
|NSAIDs and Salicylates|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of piroxicam with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) increases the risk of GI toxicity, with little or no increase in efficacy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].|
|Intervention:||The concomitant use of piroxicam with other NSAIDs or salicylates is not recommended.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of piroxicam and pemetrexed may increase the risk of pemetrexed-associated myelosuppression, renal, and GI toxicity (see the pemetrexed prescribing information).|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of piroxicam and pemetrexed, in patients with renal impairment whose creatinine clearance ranges from 45 to 79 mL/min, monitor for myelosuppression, renal and GI toxicity. NSAIDs with short elimination half-lives (e.g., diclofenac, indomethacin) should be avoided for a period of two days before, the day of, and two days following administration of pemetrexed. In the absence of data regarding potential interaction between pemetrexed and NSAIDs with longer half-lives (e.g., meloxicam, nabumetone), patients taking these NSAIDs should interrupt dosing for at least five days before, the day of, and two days following pemetrexed administration.|
|Highly Protein Bound Drugs|
|Clinical Impact:||Piroxicam is highly protein bound and, therefore, might be expected to displace other protein bound drugs.|
|Intervention:||Physicians should closely monitor patients for a change in dosage requirements when administering piroxicam to patients on other highly protein bound drugs.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of corticosteroids with piroxicam may increase the risk of GI ulceration or bleeding.|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients with concomitant use of piroxicam with corticosteroids for signs of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] .|
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