Plasbumin

PLASBUMIN — albumin (human) solution
TALECRIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.

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DESCRIPTION

Albumin (Human) 5%, USP (Plasbumin® -5) is made from pooled human venous plasma using the Cohn cold ethanol fractionation process. Part of the fractionation may be performed by another licensed manufacturer. It is prepared in accordance with the applicable requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Plasbumin-5 is a 5% sterile solution of albumin in an aqueous diluent. The preparation is stabilized with 0.004 M sodium caprylate and 0.004 M acetyltryptophan. The approximate sodium content of the product is 145 mEq/L. It contains no preservative. Plasbumin-5 must be administered intravenously.

Each vial of Plasbumin-5 is heat-treated at 60°C for 10 hours against the possibility of transmitting the hepatitis viruses.

Additionally, the manufacturing process was investigated for its capacity to decrease the infectivity of an experimental agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), considered as a model for the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) agents.[8-11] The production steps from Pooled Plasma to Effluent IV‑1 in the Plasbumin-5 manufacturing process have been shown to decrease TSE infectivity of that experimental model agent (a total of ≥ 7.0 logs). These studies provide reasonable assurance that low levels of vCJD/CJD agent infectivity, if present in the starting material, would be removed.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Plasbumin-5 is oncotically equivalent volume for volume to normal human plasma.

When administered intravenously to an adequately hydrated subject, the oncotic (colloid osmotic) effect of Plasbumin-5 is to expand the circulating blood volume by an amount approximately equal to the volume infused. It is primarily used in the treatment of shock associated with hemorrhage, surgery, trauma, burns, bacteremia, renal failure, and cardiovascular collapse.[1]

Albumin is a transport protein and it may be useful in severe jaundice in hemolytic disease of the newborn.[2] This could also be of importance in acute liver failure where albumin might serve the dual role of supporting plasma oncotic pressure, as well as binding excessive plasma bilirubin.[1]

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Emergency Treatment of Hypovolemic Shock

Plasbumin-5 is iso-oncotic with normal plasma and on intravenous infusion will expand the circulating blood volume by an amount approximately equal to the volume infused. In conditions associated mainly with a volume deficit, albumin is best administered as a 5% solution (Plasbumin-5); but where there is an oncotic deficit, Albumin (Human) 25%, USP (Plasbumin® -25) may be preferred. This is also an important consideration where the treatment of the shock state has been delayed. If Plasbumin-25 is used, appropriate additional crystalloid should be administered.[1]

Crystalloid solutions in volumes several times greater than that of Plasbumin-5 may be effective in treating shock in younger individuals who have no preexisting illness at the time of the incident. Older patients, especially those with preexisting debilitating conditions, or those in whom the shock is caused by a medical disorder, or where the state of shock has existed for some time before active therapy could be instituted, may not tolerate hypoalbuminemia as well.[1]

Removal of ascitic fluid from a patient with cirrhosis may cause changes in cardiovascular function and even result in hypovolemic shock. In such circumstances, the use of albumin infusion may be required to support the blood volume.[1]

Burn Therapy

An optimal therapeutic regimen with respect to the administration of colloids, crystalloids, and water following extensive burns has not been established. During the first 24 hours after sustaining thermal injury, large volumes of crystalloids are infused to restore the depleted extracellular fluid volume. Beyond 24 hours, albumin can be used to maintain plasma colloid osmotic pressure. Plasbumin-25 may be preferred for this purpose.[1]

Cardiopulmonary Bypass [1]

With the relatively small priming volume required with modern pumps, preoperative dilution of the blood using albumin and crystalloid has been shown to be safe and well-tolerated. Although the limit to which the hematocrit and plasma protein concentration can be safely lowered has not been defined, it is common practice to adjust the albumin and crystalloid pump prime to achieve a hematocrit of 20% and a plasma albumin concentration of 2.5 g per 100 mL in the patient.

Acute Liver Failure [1]

In the uncommon situation of rapid loss of liver function, with or without coma, administration of albumin may serve the double purpose of supporting the colloid osmotic pressure of the plasma as well as binding excess plasma bilirubin.

Sequestration of Protein Rich Fluids [2]

This occurs in such conditions as acute peritonitis, pancreatitis, mediastinitis, and extensive cellulitis. The magnitude of loss into the third space may require treatment of reduced volume or oncotic activity with an infusion of albumin.

Situations in Which Albumin Administration is Not Warranted [1]

In chronic nephrosis, infused albumin is promptly excreted by the kidneys with no relief of the chronic edema or effect on the underlying renal lesion. It is of occasional use in the rapid “priming” diuresis of nephrosis. Similarly, in hypoproteinemic states associated with chronic cirrhosis, malabsorption, protein losing enteropathies, pancreatic insufficiency, and undernutrition, the infusion of albumin as a source of protein nutrition is not justified.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Certain patients, e.g., those with a history of congestive cardiac failure, renal insufficiency or stabilized chronic anemia, are at special risk of developing circulatory overload. A history of allergic reaction to albumin is a specific contraindication for usage.

WARNINGS

Plasbumin-5 is made from human plasma. Products made from human plasma may contain infectious agents, such as viruses, and, theoretically, the Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) agent that can cause disease. The theoretical risk for transmission of CJD is considered extremely remote. No cases of transmission of viral diseases or CJD have ever been identified for albumin. The risk that such products will transmit an infectious agent has been reduced by screening plasma donors for prior exposure to certain viruses, by testing for the presence of certain current virus infections, and by inactivating and/or removing certain viruses. Despite these measures, such products can still potentially transmit disease. There is also the possibility that unknown infectious agents may be present in such products. Individuals who receive infusions of blood or plasma products may develop signs and/or symptoms of some viral infections, particularly hepatitis C. ALL infections thought by a physician possibly to have been transmitted by this product should be reported by the physician or other healthcare provider to Talecris Biotherapeutics, Inc. [1-800-520-2807].

The physician should discuss the risks and benefits of this product with the patient, before prescribing or administering it to the patient.

Solutions which have been frozen should not be used. Do not use if turbid. Do not begin administration more than 4 hours after the container has been entered. Partially used vials must be discarded. Vials which are cracked or which have been previously entered or damaged should not be used, as this may have allowed the entry of microorganisms. Albumin (Human) 5%, USP (Plasbumin® -5) contains no preservative.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Patients should always be monitored carefully in order to guard against the possibility of circulatory overload. Plasbumin-5 is iso-oncotic with normal plasma and will not tend to aggravate tissue dehydration. Appropriate additional crystalloids should be administered, if required by the patient, to maintain normal fluid balance.

In hemorrhage, the administration of albumin should be supplemented by the transfusion of whole blood to treat the relative anemia associated with hemodilution.[3] When circulating blood volume has been reduced, hemodilution following the administration of albumin persists for many hours. In patients with a normal blood volume, hemodilution lasts for a much shorter period.[4-6] The rapid rise in blood pressure, which may follow the administration of a colloid with positive oncotic activity, necessitates careful observation to detect and treat severed blood vessels which may not have bled at the lower blood pressure.

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