The CAPRIE trial was a 19,185-patient, 304-center, international, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study comparing Plavix (75 mg daily) to aspirin (325 mg daily). The patients randomized had: 1) recent histories of myocardial infarction (within 35 days); 2) recent histories of ischemic stroke (within 6 months) with at least a week of residual neurological signs; or 3) established peripheral arterial disease. Patients received randomized treatment for an average of 1.6 years (maximum of 3 years).
The trial’s primary outcome was the time to first occurrence of new ischemic stroke (fatal or not), new myocardial infarction (fatal or not), or other vascular death. Deaths not easily attributable to nonvascular causes were all classified as vascular.
|Ischemic stroke (fatal or not)||438 (4.6%)||461 (4.8%)|
|MI (fatal or not)||275 (2.9%)||333 (3.5%)|
|Other vascular death||226 (2.4%)||226 (2.4%)|
|Total||939 (9.8%)||1020 (10.6%)|
As shown in Table 6, Plavix was associated with a lower incidence of outcome events, primarily MI. The overall relative risk reduction (9.8% vs. 10.6%) was 8.7%, p=0.045. Similar results were obtained when all-cause mortality and all-cause strokes were counted instead of vascular mortality and ischemic strokes (risk reduction 6.9%). In patients who survived an on-study stroke or myocardial infarction, the incidence of subsequent events was lower in the Plavix group.
The curves showing the overall event rate are shown in Figure 8. The event curves separated early and continued to diverge over the 3-year follow-up period.
|Figure 8: Fatal or Non-Fatal Vascular Events in the CAPRIE Study|
The statistical significance favoring Plavix over aspirin was marginal (p=0.045). However, because aspirin is itself effective in reducing cardiovascular events in patients with recent myocardial infarction or stroke, the effect of Plavix is substantial.
The CAPRIE trial included a population that was randomized on the basis of 3 entry criteria. The efficacy of Plavix relative to aspirin was heterogeneous across these randomized subgroups (p=0.043). It is not clear whether this difference is real or a chance occurrence. Although the CAPRIE trial was not designed to evaluate the relative benefit of Plavix over aspirin in the individual patient subgroups, the benefit appeared to be strongest in patients who were enrolled because of peripheral vascular disease (especially those who also had a history of myocardial infarction) and weaker in stroke patients. In patients who were enrolled in the trial on the sole basis of a recent myocardial infarction, Plavix was not numerically superior to aspirin.
14.3 Lack of Established Benefit of Plavix plus Aspirin in Patients with Multiple Risk Factors or Established Vascular Disease
The CHARISMA trial was a 15,603 subject, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study comparing Plavix (75 mg daily) to placebo for prevention of ischemic events in patients with vascular disease or multiple risk factors for atherosclerosis. All subjects were treated with aspirin 75–162 mg daily. The mean duration of treatment was 23 months. The study failed to demonstrate a reduction in the occurrence of the primary endpoint, a composite of CV death, MI, or stroke. A total of 534 (6.9%) patients in the Plavix group versus 573 (7.4%) patients in the placebo group experienced a primary outcome event (p=0.22). Bleeding of all severities was more common in the subjects randomized to Plavix.
Plavix (clopidogrel bisulfate) 75 mg tablets are available as pink, round, biconvex, film-coated tablets debossed with “75″ on one side and “1171″ on the other. Tablets are provided as follows:
|Bottles of 30||NDC 54868-4070-0|
|Bottles of 60||NDC 54868-4070-2|
|Bottles of 90||NDC 54868-4070-1|
Store at 25° C (77° F); excursions permitted to 15°–30° C (59°–86° F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
[See Medication Guide (17.6)]
- Summarize the effectiveness features and potential side effects of Plavix.
- Tell patients to take Plavix exactly as prescribed.
- Remind patients not to discontinue Plavix without first discussing it with the physician who prescribed Plavix.
Inform patients that they:
- will bruise and bleed more easily.
- will take longer than usual to stop bleeding.
- should report any unanticipated, prolonged, or excessive bleeding, or blood in their stool or urine.
- Inform patients that TTP is a rare but serious condition that has been reported with Plavix and other drugs in this class of drugs.
- Instruct patients to get prompt medical attention if they experience any of the following symptoms that cannot otherwise be explained: fever, weakness, extreme skin paleness, purple skin patches, yellowing of the skin or eyes, or neurological changes.
Instruct patients to:
- inform physicians and dentists that they are taking Plavix before any invasive procedure is scheduled.
- tell the doctor performing the invasive procedure to talk to the prescribing health care professional before stopping Plavix.
Ask patients to list all prescription medications, over-the-counter medications, or dietary supplements they are taking or plan to take, including prescription or over-the-counter proton pump inhibitors (e.g., omeprazole), warfarin or NSAIDs [see Warnings and Precautions (5)].
Read this Medication Guide before you start taking Plavix and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This Medication Guide does not take the place of talking with your doctor about your medical condition or your treatment.
What is the most important information I should know about Plavix?
- Plavix may not work as well in people who:
- have certain genetic factors that affect how the body breaks down Plavix. Your doctor may do genetic tests to make sure Plavix is right for you.
- take certain medicines, especially omeprazole (Prilosec®) or esomeprazole (Nexium®). Your doctor may change the medicine you take for stomach acid problems while you take Plavix.
- Plavix can cause bleeding which can be serious and can sometimes lead to death. Plavix is a blood thinner medicine that lowers the chance of blood clots forming in your body. While you take Plavix:
- you may bruise and bleed more easily
- you are more likely to have nose bleeds
- it will take longer for any bleeding to stop
Call your doctor right away if you have any of these signs or symptoms of bleeding:
- unexpected bleeding or bleeding that lasts a long time
- blood in your urine (pink, red or brown urine)
- red or black stools (looks like tar)
- bruises that happen without a known cause or get larger
- cough up blood or blood clots
- vomit blood or your vomit looks like coffee grounds
Do not stop taking Plavix without talking to the doctor who prescribes it for you. People who are treated with a stent, and stop taking Plavix too soon, have a higher risk of getting a blood clot on the stent, having a heart attack, or dying. If you must stop Plavix because of bleeding, your risk of a heart attack may be higher.
What is Plavix?
Plavix is a prescription medicine used to treat people who have any of the following:
- chest pain due to heart problems
- poor circulation in their legs (peripheral arterial disease)
- a heart attack
- a stroke
Plavix is used alone or with aspirin to lower your chance of having another serious problem with your heart or blood vessels such as heart attack, stroke, or blood clot that can lead to death.
Platelets are blood cells that help your blood clot normally. Plavix helps to prevent platelets from sticking together and forming a clot that can block an artery.
It is not known if Plavix is safe and effective in children.
Who should not take Plavix?
Do not take Plavix if you:
- currently have a condition that causes bleeding, such as a stomach ulcer
- are allergic to clopidogrel or other ingredients in Plavix. See the end of this leaflet for a complete list of ingredients in Plavix.
What should I tell my doctor before taking Plavix?
Before you take Plavix, tell your doctor if you:
- have a history of bowel (gastrointestinal) or stomach ulcers
- have a history of bleeding problems
- plan to have surgery or a dental procedure. See “How should I take Plavix?“
- are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. It is not known if Plavix will harm your unborn baby
- are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if Plavix passes into your breast milk. You and your doctor should decide if you will take Plavix or breastfeed. You should not do both without talking to your doctor.
Tell all of your doctors and your dentist that you are taking Plavix. They should talk to the doctor who prescribed Plavix for you before you have any surgery or invasive procedure.
Tell your doctor about all the medicines you take , including prescription, non-prescription medicines, vitamins and herbal supplements.
Plavix may affect the way other medicines work, and other medicines may affect how Plavix works. See “What is the most important information I should know about Plavix?“
Taking Plavix with certain other medicines may increase your risk of bleeding. Especially tell your doctor if you take:
- aspirin, especially if you have had a stroke. Always talk to your doctor about whether you should take aspirin along with Plavix to treat your condition.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Ask your doctor or pharmacist for a list of NSAID medicines if you are not sure.
- warfarin (Coumadin ® , Jantoven ® )
Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them to show your doctor or pharmacist when you get a new medicine.
How should I take Plavix?
- Take Plavix exactly as your doctor tells you.
- Do not change your dose or stop taking Plavix without talking to your doctor first. Stopping Plavix may increase your risk of heart attack or stroke.
- Take Plavix with aspirin as instructed by your doctor.
- You can take Plavix with or without food.
- If you miss a dose, take Plavix as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose. Take the next dose at your regular time. Do not take 2 doses of Plavix at the same time unless your doctor tells you to.
- If you take too much Plavix, call your doctor or go to the nearest emergency room right away.
- Talk with your doctor about stopping your Plavix before you have surgery. Your doctor may tell you to stop taking Plavix at least 5 days before you have surgery to avoid excessive bleeding during surgery.
What are the possible side effects of Plavix?
Plavix can cause serious side effects including:
- See “What is the most important information I should know about Plavix?”
- A blood clotting problem called Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP). TTP can happen with Plavix, sometimes after a short time (less than 2 weeks). TTP is a blood clotting problem where blood clots form in blood vessels; and can happen anywhere in the body. TTP needs to be treated in a hospital right away, because it may cause death. Get medical help right away if you have any of these symptoms and they can not be explained by another medical condition:
- purplish spots (called purpura) on the skin or in the mouth (mucous membranes) due to bleeding under the skin
- your skin or the whites of your eyes are yellow (jaundice)
- you feel tired or weak
- your skin looks very pale
- fast heart rate or feeling short of breath
- speech changes
- low amount of urine, or urine that is pink or has blood in it
- stomach area (abdominal) pain
- nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
- vision changes
Tell your doctor if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.
These are not all the possible side effects of Plavix. For more information, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
How should I store Plavix?
- Store Plavix at 59°F to 86°F (15°C to 30°C).
Keep Plavix and all medicines out of the reach of children.
General information about Plavix
Medicines are sometimes used for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not take Plavix for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give Plavix to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them.
This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about Plavix. If you would like more information, talk to your doctor. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for information about Plavix that was written for healthcare professionals.
For more information, go to www.sanofi-aventis.us or www.bms.com or call 1-800-321-1335.
What are the ingredients in Plavix?
Active ingredient: clopidogrel bisulfate
Tablet: hydrogenated castor oil, hydroxypropylcellulose, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol 6000
Film coating: ferric oxide, hypromellose 2910, lactose monohydrate, titanium dioxide, triacetin, Carnauba wax
This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Revised December 2011
Bristol-Myers Squibb/Sanofi Pharmaceuticals Partnership
Bridgewater, NJ 08807
Plavix® is a registered trademark of sanofi-aventis.
Coumadin® is a registered trademark of Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharma Company.
Prilosec® is a registered trademark of AstraZeneca.
Jantoven® is a registered trademark of USL Pharma.
Relabeling and Repackaging by:
Physicians Total Care, Inc.
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74146
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.