Potassium Chloride

POTASSIUM CHLORIDE- potassium chloride injection, solution
Baxter Healthcare Corporation

DESCRIPTION

This Potassium Chloride Injection, is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, highly concentrated, ready-to-use, solution of Potassium Chloride, USP in Water for Injection, USP for electrolyte replenishment in a single dose container for intravenous administration. It contains no antimicrobial agents.

Potassium Chloride Injection mEq Potassium/Container Composition (g/L) Potassium Chloride, USP (KCl) Osmolarity *(mOsmol/L) (calc) pH Ionic Concentration (mEq/L)
Potassium Chloride
*
Normal physiologic osmolarity range is approximately 280 to 310 mOsmol/L. Administration of substantially hypertonic solutions (≥600 mOsmol/L) may cause vein damage.

10 mEq/100 mL

7.46

200

5.0 (4.0 to 8.0)

100

100

10 mEq/50 mL 20 mEq/100 mL

14.9

400

5.0 (4.0 to 8.0)

200

200

20 mEq/50 mL 40 mEq/100 mL

29.8

799

5.0 (4.0 to 8.0)

400

400

This VIAFLEX Plus plastic container is fabricated from a specially formulated polyvinyl chloride (PL 146 Plastic). Exposure to temperatures above 25°C/77°F during transport and storage will lead to minor losses in moisture content. Higher temperatures lead to greater losses. It is unlikely that these minor losses will lead to clinically significant changes within the expiration period. The amount of water that can permeate from inside the container into the overwrap is insufficient to affect the solution significantly. Solutions in contact with the plastic container may leach out certain of its chemical components from the plastic in very small amounts; however, biological testing was supportive of the safety of the plastic container materials.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Potassium is the major cation of body cells (160 mEq/liter of intracellular water) and is concerned with the maintenance of body fluid composition and electrolyte balance. Potassium participates in carbohydrate utilization, protein synthesis, and is critical in the regulation of nerve conduction and muscle contraction, particularly in the heart. Chloride, the major extracellular anion, closely follows the metabolism of sodium, and changes in the acid-base of the body are reflected by changes in the chloride concentration.

Normally about 80 to 90% of the potassium intake is excreted in the urine, the remainder in the stools and to a small extent, in the perspiration. The kidney does not conserve potassium well so that during fasting, or in patients on a potassium-free diet, potassium loss from the body continues resulting in potassium depletion. A deficiency of either potassium or chloride will lead to a deficit of the other.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Potassium Chloride Injection is indicated in the treatment of potassium deficiency states when oral replacement is not feasible.

THIS HIGHLY CONCENTRATED, READY-TO-USE POTASSIUM CHLORIDE INJECTION IS INTENDED FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF SERUM K+ LEVELS AND FOR POTASSIUM SUPPLEMENTATION IN FLUID RESTRICTED PATIENTS WHO CANNOT ACCOMMODATE ADDITIONAL VOLUMES OF FLUID ASSOCIATED WITH POTASSIUM SOLUTIONS OF LOWER CONCENTRATION.

When using these products, these patients should be on continuous cardiac monitoring and frequent testing for serum potassium concentration and acid-base balance.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Potassium Chloride Injection is contraindicated in patients with:

hyperkalemia
known hypersensitivity to Potassium Chloride Injection

WARNINGS

Hyperkalemia

THIS HIGHLY CONCENTRATED, READY-TO-USE POTASSIUM CHLORIDE INJECTION IS INTENDED FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF SERUM K+ LEVELS AND FOR POTASSIUM SUPPLEMENTATION IN FLUID RESTRICTED PATIENTS WHO CANNOT ACCOMMODATE ADDITIONAL VOLUMES OF FLUID ASSOCIATED WITH POTASSIUM SOLUTIONS OF LOWER CONCENTRATION.

TO AVOID POTASSIUM INTOXICATION, DO NOT INFUSE THESE SOLUTIONS RAPIDLY.

Potassium Chloride Injection should be administered with extreme caution, if at all, to patients with conditions predisposing to hyperkalemia and/or associated with increased sensitivity to potassium, such as patients with:

severe renal impairment,
acute dehydration,
extensive tissue injury or burns,
certain cardiac disorders such as congestive heart failure or AV block,
potassium-aggravated skeletal muscle channelopathies (e.g., hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, paramyotonia congenita, and potassium-aggravated myotonia/paramyotonia).

Potassium Chloride Injection should be administered with caution to patients who are at risk of experiencing hyperosmolality, acidosis, or undergo correction of alkalosis (conditions associated with a shift of potassium from intracellular to extracellular space) and patients treated concurrently or recently with agents or products that can cause hyperkalemia (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).

If used in high-risk patients, especially close monitoring and careful dose selection and adjustment is required.

PATIENTS REQUIRING HIGHLY CONCENTRATED SOLUTIONS SHOULD BE KEPT ON CONTINUOUS CARDIAC MONITORING AND UNDERGO FREQUENT TESTING FOR SERUM POTASSIUM AND ACID-BASE BALANCE, ESPECIALLY IF THEY RECEIVE DIGITALIS.

Administration of concentrated potassium solutions can cause cardiac conduction disorders (including complete heart block) and other cardiac arrhythmias at any time during infusion. Continuous cardiac monitoring is performed to aid in the detection of cardiac arrhythmias due to a sudden increase in serum potassium concentration (e.g., when potassium infusion is started), or transient or sustained hyperkalemia (see ADVERSE REACTIONS and OVERDOSAGE).

Frequently, mild or moderate hyperkalemia is asymptomatic and may be manifested only by increased serum potassium concentrations and, possibly, characteristic EKG changes. However, fatal arrhythmias can develop at any time during hyperkalemia.

Serum potassium levels are not necessarily indicative of tissue potassium levels.

Tissue Damage and Thrombophlebitis

When infusing concentrated potassium solutions, including Potassium Chloride Injection, care must be taken to prevent paravenous administration or extravasation because such solutions may be associated with tissue damage, which may be severe and include vascular, nerve, and tendon damage, leading to surgical intervention, including amputation. Secondary complications including pulmonary embolism from thrombophlebitis have been reported as a consequence of tissue damage from potassium chloride.

Administer intravenously only with a calibrated infusion device at a slow, controlled rate. (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Highest concentrations (400 mEq per L) should be exclusively administered via central intravenous route. Whenever possible, administration via a central route is recommended for all concentrations of Potassium Chloride Injection for thorough dilution by the blood stream and decreasing the risk of extravasation and to avoid pain and phlebitis associated with peripheral infusion. Correct placement of the catheter should be verified before administration.

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