POTASSIUM CHLORIDE- potassium chloride capsule, coated, extended release
Potassium chloride extended-release capsules are indicated for the treatment and prophylaxis of hypokalemia in adults and children with or without metabolic alkalosis, in patients for whom dietary management with potassium-rich foods or diuretic dose reduction is insufficient.
Monitor serum potassium and adjust dosages accordingly. Monitor serum potassium periodically during maintenance therapy to ensure potassium remains in desired range.
The treatment of potassium depletion, particularly in the presence of cardiac disease, renal disease, or acidosis requires careful attention to acid-base balance, volume status, electrolytes, including magnesium, sodium, chloride, phosphate, and calcium, electrocardiograms and the clinical status of the patient. Correct volume status, acid-base balance and electrolyte deficits as appropriate.
Take with meals and with a full glass of water or other liquid. Do not take on an empty stomach because of the potential for gastric irritation [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1)].
Patients who have difficulty swallowing capsules may sprinkle the contents of the capsule onto a spoonful of soft food. The soft food, such as applesauce or pudding, should be swallowed immediately without chewing and followed with a glass of water or juice to ensure complete swallowing of the microcapsules. Do not added to hot foods. Any microcapsule/food mixture should be used immediately and not stored for future use.
Treatment of hypokalemia: Typical dose range is 40 to 100 mEq per day.
Maintenance or Prophylaxis: Typical dose is 20 mEq per day.
Treatment of hypokalemia: The recommended initial dose is 2 to 4 mEq/kg/day in divided doses. If deficits are severe or ongoing losses are great, consider intravenous therapy.
Maintenance or Prophylaxis: Typical dose is 1 mEq/kg/day.
Potassium chloride extended-release capsules USP, 600 mg (equivalent to 8 mEq of potassium) are size ’00′ opaque white color hard gelatin capsules imprinted with ‘LU’ on cap and ‘R51′ on body in black ink containing white to off white coated pellets.
Potassium chloride extended-release capsules USP, 750 mg (equivalent to 10 mEq of potassium) are size ’00 EL’ opaque blue color hard gelatin capsules imprinted with ‘LU’ on cap and ‘R52′ on body in white ink containing white to off white coated pellets.
Solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride can produce ulcerative and/or stenotic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly if the drug is in contact with the gastrointestinal mucosa for a prolonged period of time. Consider the use of liquid potassium in patients with dysphagia, swallowing disorders, or severe gastrointestinal motility disorders.
If severe vomiting, abdominal pain, distention, or gastrointestinal bleeding occurs, discontinue potassium chloride extended-release capsules and consider possibility of ulceration, obstruction or perforation.
Potassium chloride extended-release capsules should not be taken on an empty stomach because of its potential for gastric irritation [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.1)] .
The following adverse reactions have been identified with use of oral potassium salts. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
The most common adverse reactions to oral potassium salts are nausea, vomiting, flatulence, abdominal pain/discomfort, and diarrhea.
There have been reports of hyperkalemia and of upper and lower gastrointestinal conditions including, obstruction, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation.
Skin rash has been reported rarely.
Use with triamterene or amiloride can produce severe hyperkalemia. Concomitant use is contraindicated [see Contraindications ( 4)] .
Drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosternone system (RAAS) including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), spironolactone, eplerenone, or aliskiren produces potassium retention by inhibiting aldosterone production. Closely monitor potassium in patients taking drugs that inhibit RAAS.
There are no human data related to use of potassium chloride extended-release capsules during pregnancy and animal reproductive studies have not been conducted. Potassium supplementation that does not lead to hyperkalemia is not expected to cause fetal harm.
The background risk for major birth defects and miscarriage in the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
The normal potassium ion content of human milk is about 13 mEq per liter. Since oral potassium becomes part of the body potassium pool, as long as body potassium is not excessive, the contribution of potassium chloride supplementation should have little or no effect on the level in human milk.
Clinical studies of potassium chloride did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Based on publish literature, the baseline corrected serum concentrations of potassium measured over 3 hours after administration in cirrhotic subjects who received an oral potassium load rose to approximately twice that of normal subjects who received the same load. Patients with cirrhosis should usually be started at the low end of the dosing range, and the serum potassium level should be monitored frequently [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)] .
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