POTASSIUM CHLORIDE- potassium chloride solution
Potassium chloride oral solution is indicated for the treatment and prophylaxis of hypokalemia with or without metabolic alkalosis, in patients for whom dietary management with potassium-rich foods or diuretic dose reduction are insufficient.
Monitor serum potassium and adjust dosages accordingly. For treatment of hypokalemia, monitor potassium levels daily or more often depending on the severity of hypokalemia until they return to normal. Monitor potassium levels monthly to biannually for maintenance or prophylaxis.
The treatment of potassium depletion, particularly in the presence of cardiac disease, renal disease, or acidosis requires careful attention to acid-base balance, volume status, electrolytes, including magnesium, sodium, chloride, phosphate, and calcium, electrocardiograms and the clinical status of the patient. Correct volume status, acid-base balance and electrolyte deficits as appropriate.
Dilute the potassium chloride solution with at least 4 ounces of cold water [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Take with meals or immediately after eating.
If serum potassium concentration is < 2.5 mEq/L, use intravenous potassium instead of oral supplementation.
Treatment of hypokalemia
Daily dose range from 40 to 100 mEq. Give in 2 to 5 divided doses; limit doses to 40 mEq per dose. The total daily dose should not exceed 200 mEq in a 24 hour period.
Maintenance or Prophylaxis
Typical dose is 20 mEq per day. Individualize dose based upon serum potassium levels.
Studies support the use of potassium replacement in digitalis toxicity. When alkalosis is present, normokalemia and hyperkalemia may obscure a total potassium deficit. The advisability of use of potassium replacement in the setting of hyperkalemia is uncertain.
Treatment of hypokalemia
Pediatric patients aged birth to 16 years old: The initial dose is 2 to 4 mEq/kg/day in divided doses; do not exceed as a single dose 1 mEq/kg or 40 mEq, whichever is lower; maximum daily doses should not exceed 100 mEq. If deficits are severe or ongoing losses are great, consider intravenous therapy.
Maintenance or Prophylaxis
Pediatric patients aged birth to 16 years old: Typical dose is 1 mEq/kg/day. Do not exceed 3 mEq/kg/day.
Oral Solution 10%: 1.3 mEq potassium per mL.
Oral Solution 20%: 2.6 mEq potassium per mL.
Potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients on potassium sparing diuretics.
May cause gastrointestinal irritation if administered undiluted. Increased dilution of the solution and taking with meals may reduce gastrointestinal irritation [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
The most common adverse reactions to oral potassium salts are nausea, vomiting, flatulence, abdominal pain/discomfort, and diarrhea.
Use with potassium-sparing diuretics can produce severe hyperkalemia. Avoid concomitant use.
Drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), spironolactone, eplerenone, or aliskiren produce potassium retention by inhibiting aldosterone production. Closely monitor potassium in patients receiving concomitant RAAS therapy.
NSAIDS may produce potassium retention by reducing renal synthesis of prostaglandin E and impairing the renin-angiotensin system. Closely monitor potassium in patients on concomitant NSAIDs.
There are no human data related to use of Potassium Chloride during pregnancy, and animal studies have not been conducted. Potassium supplementation that does not lead to hyperkalemia is not expected to cause fetal harm.
The background risk for major birth defects and miscarriage in the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
The normal potassium ion content of human milk is about 13 mEq per liter. Since potassium from oral supplements such as Potassium Chloride becomes part of the body potassium pool, as long as body potassium is not excessive, the contribution of potassium chloride supplementation should have little or no effect on the level in human milk.
The safety and effectiveness of potassium chloride have been demonstrated in children with diarrhea and malnutrition from birth to 16 years.
Clinical studies of potassium chloride did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Patients with cirrhosis should usually be started at the low end of the dosing range, and the serum potassium level should be monitored frequently. [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Patients with renal impairment have reduced urinary excretion of potassium and are at substantially increased risk of hyperkalemia. Patients with impaired renal function, particularly if the patient is on ACE inhibitors, ARBs, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should usually be started at the low end of the dosing range because of the potential for development of hyperkalemia. The serum potassium level should be monitored frequently. Renal function should be assessed periodically.
The administration of oral potassium salts to persons with normal excretory mechanisms for potassium rarely causes serious hyperkalemia. However, if excretory mechanisms are impaired or if potassium is administered too rapidly potentially fatal hyperkalemia can result.
Hyperkalemia is usually asymptomatic and may be manifested only by an increased serum potassium concentration (6.5 to 8.0 mEq/L) and characteristic electrocardiographic changes (peaking of T-waves, loss of P-waves, depression of S-T segment, and prolongation of the QT-interval). Late manifestations include muscle paralysis and cardiovascular collapse from cardiac arrest (9 to12 mEq/L).
Treatment measures for hyperkalemia include the following:
1. Monitor closely for arrhythmias and electrolyte changes.
2. Eliminate foods and medications containing potassium and of any agents with potassium-sparing properties such as potassium-sparing diuretics, ARBS, ACE inhibitors, NSAIDS, certain nutritional supplements and many others.
3. Administer intravenous calcium gluconate if the patient is at no risk or low risk of developing digitalis toxicity.
4. Administer intravenously 300 to 500 mL/hr of 10% dextrose solution containing 10 to 20 units of crystalline insulin per 1000 mL.
5. Correct acidosis, if present, with intravenous sodium bicarbonate.
6. Use exchange resins, hemodialysis, or peritoneal dialysis.
In patients who have been stabilized on digitalis, too rapid a lowering of the serum potassium concentration can produce digitalis toxicity.
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