POTASSIUM CHLORIDE IN DEXTROSE AND SODIUM CHLORIDE- dextrose monohydrate, sodium chloride and potassium chloride injection, solution
Potassium Chloride in 5% Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injection, USP
Flexible Plastic Container
Intravenous solutions with potassium chloride (I.V. solutions with KCl) are sterile and nonpyrogenic solutions in water for injection. They are for administration by intravenous infusion only.
See Tables for summary of content and characteristics of these solutions.
The solutions contain no bacteriostat, antimicrobial agent or added buffer and each is intended only for use as a single-dose injection. When smaller doses are required the unused portion should be discarded.
These solutions are parenteral fluid, nutrient and/or electrolyte replenishers.
Dextrose, USP is chemically designated D-glucose, monohydrate (C6 H12 O6 • H2 O), a hexose sugar freely soluble in water. It has the following structural formula:
Potassium Chloride, USP is chemically designated KCl, a white granular powder freely soluble in water.
Sodium Chloride, USP is chemically designated NaCl, a white crystalline powder freely soluble in water.
Water for Injection, USP is chemically designated H2 O.
The flexible plastic container is fabricated from a specially formulated polyvinylchloride. Water can permeate from inside the container into the overwrap but not in amounts sufficient to affect the solution significantly. Solutions in contact with the plastic container may leach out certain chemical components from the plastic in very small amounts; however, biological testing was supportive of the safety of the plastic container materials. Exposure to temperatures above 25°C/77°F during transport and storage will lead to minor losses in the moisture content. Higher temperatures lead to greater losses. It is unlikely that these minor losses will lead to clinically significant changes within the expiration period.
When administered intravenously, these solutions provide a source of water and potassium chloride with carbohydrate (dextrose) and sodium chloride. See HOW SUPPLIED section for specific concentrations of these various solutions.
Solutions containing carbohydrate in the form of dextrose restore blood glucose levels and provide calories. Carbohydrate in the form of dextrose may aid in minimizing liver glycogen depletion and exerts a protein-sparing action. Dextrose injected parenterally undergoes oxidation to carbon dioxide and water.
Intravenous solutions containing potassium chloride are particularly intended to provide needed potassium cation (K+). Potassium is the chief cation of body cells (160 mEq/liter of intracellular water). It is found in low concentration in plasma and extracellular fluids (3.5 to 5.0 mEq/liter in a healthy adult). Potassium plays an important role in electrolyte balance. Normally about 80 to 90% of the potassium intake is excreted in the urine; the remainder in the stools and to a small extent, in the perspiration. The kidney does not conserve potassium well so that during fasting or in patients on a potassium-free diet, potassium loss from the body continues resulting in potassium depletion. A deficiency of either potassium or chloride will lead to a deficit of the other.
Sodium chloride in water dissociates to provide sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) ions. Sodium (Na+) is the principal cation of the extracellular fluid and plays a large part in the therapy of fluid and electrolyte disturbances. Chloride (Cl−) has an integral role in buffering action when oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange occurs in the red blood cells. The distribution and excretion of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) are largely under the control of the kidney which maintains a balance between intake and output.
Water is an essential constituent of all body tissues and accounts for approximately 70% of total body weight. Average normal adult daily requirement ranges from two to three liters (1.0 to 1.5 liters each for insensible water loss by perspiration and urine production).
Water balance is maintained by various regulatory mechanisms. Water distribution depends primarily on the concentration of electrolytes in the body compartments and sodium (Na+) plays a major role in maintaining physiologic equilibrium.
These solutions are indicated in patients requiring parenteral administration of potassium chloride with minimal carbohydrate calories and sodium chloride.
Solutions containing potassium chloride are contraindicated in diseases where high potassium levels may be encountered.
Solutions which contain potassium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with hyperkalemia, severe renal failure and in conditions in which potassium retention is present.
To avoid potassium intoxication, do not infuse these solutions rapidly. In patients with severe renal insufficiency or adrenal insufficiency, administration of potassium chloride may cause potassium intoxication.
Solutions containing sodium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with congestive heart failure, severe renal insufficiency and in clinical states in which there exists edema with sodium retention.
In patients with diminished renal function, administration of solutions containing sodium or potassium ions may result in sodium or potassium retention.
The intravenous administration of these solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overloading resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states or pulmonary edema.
The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentration of administered parenteral solutions. The risk of solute overload causing congested states with peripheral and pulmonary edema is directly proportional to the electrolyte concentrations of such solutions.
Clinical evaluation and periodic laboratory determinations are necessary to monitor changes in fluid balance, electrolyte concentrations and acid-base balance during prolonged parenteral therapy or whenever the condition of the patient warrants such evaluation.
Solutions containing dextrose should be used with caution in patients with known subclinical or overt diabetes mellitus.
Caution must be exercised in the administration of parenteral fluids, especially those containing sodium ions, to patients receiving corticosteroids or corticotropin.
Potassium replacement therapy should be guided primarily by serial electrocardiograms. Plasma potassium levels are not necessarily indicative of tissue potassium levels.
High plasma concentrations of potassium may cause death through cardiac depression, arrhythmias or arrest.
Potassium-containing solutions should be used with caution in the presence of cardiac disease, particularly in digitalized patients or in the presence of renal disease.
Care should be exercised to insure that the needle (or catheter) is well within the lumen of the vein and that extravasation does not occur.
Do not administer unless solution is clear and container is undamaged. Discard unused portion.
Studies with solutions from flexible plastic containers have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential, mutagenic potential or effects on fertility.
Pregnancy Category C. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with dextrose, potassium chloride or sodium chloride. It is also not known whether dextrose, potassium chloride or sodium chloride can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Dextrose, potassium chloride or sodium chloride should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
Caution should be exercised when solutions from flexible plastic containers are administered to a nursing mother.
The safety and effectiveness in the pediatric population are based on the similarity of the clinical conditions of the pediatric and adult populations. In neonates or very small infants the volume of fluid may affect fluid and electrolyte balance.
Frequent monitoring of serum glucose concentrations is required when dextrose is prescribed to pediatric patients, particularly neonates and low birth weight infants.
In very low birth weight infants, excessive or rapid administration of dextrose injection may result in increased serum osmolality and possible intracerebral hemorrhage.
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