Prednisone

PREDNISONE- prednisone tablet
Amneal Pharmaceuticals NY LLC

DESCRIPTION

Prednisone, USP is a glucocorticoid. Glucocorticoids are adrenocortical steroids, both naturally occurring and synthetic, that are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The chemical formula for prednisone is C21 H26 O5 . Chemically, it is 17,21-dihydroxypregna-1,4-diene- 3,11,20-trione and has the following structure:

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(click image for full-size original)

Prednisone, USP is a white or practically white, crystalline powder and has a molecular weight of 358.4 g/mol. It melts at about 234°C. Prednisone, USP is very slightly soluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol, chloroform, dioxane, and methanol. Prednisone tablets, USP contain 1 mg or 5 mg of prednisone, USP.

The inactive ingredients for prednisone tablets, USP include: lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, pregelatinized starch, sodium starch glycolate type A and stearic acid.

Meets USP Dissolution Test 2.

ACTIONS

Naturally occurring glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone and cortisone), which also have salt-retaining properties, are used as replacement therapy in adrenocortical deficiency states. Their synthetic analogs, such as prednisone, are primarily used for their potent anti-inflammatory effects in disorders of many organ systems.

Glucocorticoids, such as prednisone, cause profound and varied metabolic effects. In addition, they modify the body’s immune response to diverse stimuli.

INDICATIONS

1. Endocrine Disorders

Primary or secondary adrenocortical insufficiency (hydrocortisone or cortisone is the first choice; synthetic analogs may be used in conjunction with mineralocorticoids where applicable; in infancy mineralocorticoid supplementation is of particular importance)

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Nonsuppurative thyroiditis

Hypercalcemia associated with cancer

2. Rheumatic Disorders

As adjunctive therapy for short-term administration (to tide the patient over an acute episode or exacerbation) in:

Psoriatic arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis, including juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (selected cases may require low-dose maintenance therapy)

Ankylosing spondylitis

Acute and subacute bursitis

Acute non-specific tenosynovitis

Acute gouty arthritis

Post-traumatic osteoarthritis

Synovitis of osteoarthritis

Epicondylitis

3. Collagen Diseases

During an exacerbation or as maintenance therapy in selected cases of:

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Acute rheumatic carditis

4. Dermatologic Diseases

Pemphigus

Bullous dermatitis herpetiformis

Severe erythema multiforme (Stevens-Johnson syndrome)

Exfoliative dermatitis

Mycosis fungoides

Severe psoriasis

Severe seborrheic dermatitis

5. Allergic States

Control of severe or incapacitating allergic conditions intractable to adequate trials of conventional treatment: Seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis

Serum sickness

Bronchial asthma

Contact dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis

Drug hypersensitivity reactions

6. Ophthalmic Diseases

Severe acute and chronic allergic and inflammatory processes involving the eye and its adnexa such as:

Allergic conjunctivitis

Keratitis

Allergic corneal marginal ulcers

Herpes zoster ophthalmicus

Iritis and iridocyclitis

Chorioretinitis

Anterior segment inflammation

Diffuse posterior uveitis and choroiditis

Optic neuritis

Sympathetic ophthalmia.

7. Respiratory Diseases

Symptomatic sarcoidosis

Loeffler’s syndrome not manageable by other means

Berylliosis

Fulminating or disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis when used concurrently with appropriate antituberculous chemotherapy

Aspiration pneumonitis

8. Hematologic Disorders

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in adults

Secondary thrombocytopenia in adults

Acquired (autoimmune) hemolytic anemia

Erythroblastopenia (RBC anemia)

Congenital (erythroid) hypoplastic anemia

9. Neoplastic Diseases

For palliative management of:

Leukemias and lymphomas in adults

Acute leukemia of childhood

10. Edematous States

To induce a diuresis or remission of proteinuria in the nephrotic syndrome, without uremia, of the idiopathic type or that due to lupus erythematosus.

11. Gastrointestinal Diseases

To tide the patient over a critical period of the disease in:

Ulcerative colitis

Regional enteritis

12. Miscellaneous

Tuberculous meningitis with subarachnoid block or impending block when used concurrently with appropriate anti-tuberculous chemotherapy

Trichinosis with neurologic or myocardial involvement

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Prednisone tablets are contraindicated in systemic fungal infections.

WARNINGS

In patients on corticosteroid therapy subjected to unusual stress, increased dosage of rapidly acting corticosteroids before, during, and after the stressful situation is indicated.

Corticosteroids may mask some signs of infection, and new infections may appear during their use. There may be decreased resistance and inability to localize infection when corticosteroids are used.

Prolonged use of corticosteroids may produce posterior subcapsular cataracts, glaucoma with possible damage to the optic nerves, and may enhance the establishment of secondary ocular infections due to fungi or viruses.

Usage in pregnancy

Since adequate human reproduction studies have not been done with corticosteroids, the use of these drugs in pregnancy, nursing mothers or women of childbearing potential requires that the possible benefits of the drug be weighed against the potential hazards to the mother and embryo or fetus. Infants born of mothers who have received substantial doses of corticosteroids during pregnancy, should be carefully observed for signs of hypoadrenalism.

Average and large doses of hydrocortisone or cortisone can cause elevation of blood pressure, salt and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium. These effects are less likely to occur with the synthetic derivatives except when used in large doses. Dietary salt restriction and potassium supplementation may be necessary. All corticosteroids increase calcium excretion.

While on corticosteroid therapy patients should not be vaccinated against smallpox. Other immunization procedures should not be undertaken in patients who are on corticosteroids, especially on high dose, because of possible hazards of neurological complications and a lack of antibody response.

Persons who are on drugs which suppress the immune system are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in non-immune children or adults on corticosteroids. In such children, or adults who have not had these diseases, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. How the dose, route, and duration of corticosteroid administration affects the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known. If exposed to chickenpox, prophylaxis with varicella-zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated (see the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information). If chickenpox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered. The use of prednisone tablets in active tuberculosis should be restricted to those cases of fulminating or disseminated tuberculosis in which the corticosteroid is used for the management of the disease in conjunction with an appropriate anti-tuberculous regimen.

If corticosteroids are indicated in patients with latent tuberculosis or tuberculin reactivity, close observation is necessary as reactivation of the disease may occur. During prolonged corticosteroid therapy, these patients should receive chemoprophylaxis.

PRECAUTIONS

Information for Patients
Persons who are on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids should be warned to avoid exposure to chickenpox or measles. Patients should also be advised that if they are exposed, medical advice should be sought without delay.

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