Neuropathic Pain Associated with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy, Postherpetic Neuralgia, and Neuropathic Pain Associated with Spinal Cord Injury
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
A 15-week, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 107 pediatric patients with fibromyalgia, ages 12 through 17 years, at pregabalin total daily doses of 75-450 mg per day. The primary efficacy endpoint of change from baseline to Week 15 in mean pain intensity (derived from an 11-point numeric rating scale) showed numerically greater improvement for the pregabalin-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients, but did not reach statistical significance. The most frequently observed adverse reactions in the clinical trial included dizziness, nausea, headache, weight increased, and fatigue. The overall safety profile in adolescents was similar to that observed in adults with fibromyalgia.
Adjunctive Therapy for Partial-Onset Seizures
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 1 month have not been established.
4 to Less Than 17 Years of Age with Partial-Onset Seizures
The safety and effectiveness of pregabalin as adjunctive treatment for partial-onset seizures in pediatric patients 4 to less than 17 years of age have been established in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (n=295) [see Clinical Studies (14.3)].Patients treated with pregabalin 10 mg/kg/day had, on average, a 21.0% greater reduction in partial-onset seizures than patients treated with placebo (p=0.0185). Patients treated with pregabalin 2.5 mg/kg/day had, on average, a 10.5% greater reduction in partial-onset seizures than patients treated with placebo, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.2577).
Responder rates (50% or greater reduction in partial-onset seizure frequency) were a key secondary efficacy parameter and showed numerical improvement with pregabalin compared with placebo: the responder rates were 40.6%, 29.1%, and 22.6%, for pregabalin 10 mg/kg/day, pregabalin 2.5 mg/kg/day, and placebo, respectively.
The most common adverse reactions (≥5%) with pregabalin in this study were somnolence, weight increased, and increased appetite [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
The use of pregabalin 2.5 mg/kg/day in pediatric patients is further supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies in adults with partial-onset seizures and pharmacokinetic data from adult and pediatric patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Juvenile Animal Data
In studies in which pregabalin (50 to 500 mg/kg) was orally administered to young rats from early in the postnatal period (Postnatal Day 7) through sexual maturity, neurobehavioral abnormalities (deficits in learning and memory, altered locomotor activity, decreased auditory startle responding and habituation) and reproductive impairment (delayed sexual maturation and decreased fertility in males and females) were observed at doses greater than or equal to 50 mg/kg. The neurobehavioral changes of acoustic startle persisted at greater than or equal to 250 mg/kg and locomotor activity and water maze performance at greater than or equal to 500 mg/kg in animals tested after cessation of dosing and, thus, were considered to represent long-term effects. The low effect dose for developmental neurotoxicity and reproductive impairment in juvenile rats (50 mg/kg) was associated with a plasma pregabalin exposure (AUC) approximately equal to human exposure at the maximum recommended dose of 600 mg/day. A no-effect dose was not established.
Pediatric use information is approved for Pfizer’s LYRICA® (pregabalin) Capsules and Oral Solution products. However, due to Pfizer’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that pediatric information.
In controlled clinical studies of pregabalin in neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, 246 patients were 65 to 74 years of age, and 73 patients were 75 years of age or older.
In controlled clinical studies of pregabalin in neuropathic pain associated with postherpetic neuralgia, 282 patients were 65 to 74 years of age, and 379 patients were 75 years of age or older.
In controlled clinical studies of pregabalin in epilepsy, there were only 10 patients 65 to 74 years of age, and 2 patients who were 75 years of age or older.
No overall differences in safety and efficacy were observed between these patients and younger patients.
In controlled clinical studies of pregabalin in fibromyalgia, 106 patients were 65 years of age or older. Although the adverse reaction profile was similar between the two age groups, the following neurological adverse reactions were more frequent in patients 65 years of age or older: dizziness, vision blurred, balance disorder, tremor, confusional state, coordination abnormal, and lethargy.
Pregabalin is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to pregabalin may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because pregabalin is eliminated primarily by renal excretion, adjust the dose for elderly patients with renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)].
Pregabalin is eliminated primarily by renal excretion and dose adjustment is recommended for adult patients with renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].The use of pregabalin in pediatric patients with compromised renal function has not been studied.
Pregabalin is a Schedule V controlled substance.
Pregabalin is not known to be active at receptor sites associated with drugs of abuse. As with any CNS active drug, carefully evaluate patients for history of drug abuse and observe them for signs of pregabalin misuse or abuse (e.g., development of tolerance, dose escalation, drug-seeking behavior).
In a study of recreational users (N=15) of sedative/hypnotic drugs, including alcohol, pregabalin (450 mg, single dose) received subjective ratings of “good drug effect,” “high” and “liking” to a degree that was similar to diazepam (30 mg, single dose). In controlled clinical studies in over 5,500 patients, 4 % of pregabalin -treated patients and 1 % of placebo-treated patients overall reported euphoria as an adverse reaction, though in some patient populations studied, this reporting rate was higher and ranged from 1 to 12%.
In clinical studies, following abrupt or rapid discontinuation of pregabalin, some patients reported symptoms including insomnia, nausea, headache or diarrhea [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)],consistent with physical dependence. In the postmarketing experience, in addition to these reported symptoms there have also been reported cases of anxiety and hyperhidrosis.
Signs, Symptoms and Laboratory Findings of Acute Overdosage in Humans
In the postmarketing experience, the most commonly reported adverse events observed with pregabalin when taken in overdose include reduced consciousness, depression/anxiety, confusional state, agitation, and restlessness. Seizures and heart block have also been reported. Deaths have been reported in the setting of lone pregabalin overdose and in combination with other CNS depressants.
Treatment or Management of Overdose
There is no specific antidote for overdose with pregabalin. If indicated, elimination of unabsorbed drug may be attempted by emesis or gastric lavage; observe usual precautions to maintain the airway. General supportive care of the patient is indicated including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the clinical status of the patient. Contact a Certified Poison Control Center for up-to-date information on the management of overdose with pregabalin.
Pregabalin can be removed by hemodialysis. Standard hemodialysis procedures result in significant clearance of pregabalin (approximately 50% in 4 hours).
Pregabalin, USP is described chemically as (S)-3-(aminomethyl)-5-methylhexanoic acid. The molecular formula is C8 H17 NO2 and the molecular weight is 159.23. The chemical structure of pregabalin, USP is:
Pregabalin, USP is a white to off-white, crystalline solid with a pKa1 of 4.2 and a pKa2 of 10.6. It is freely soluble in water and both basic and acidic aqueous solutions. The log of the partition coefficient (n-octanol/0.05M phosphate buffer) at pH 7.4 is – 1.35.
Pregabalin capsules are administered orally and are supplied as imprinted hard-shell capsules containing 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 225, and 300 mg of pregabalin USP, along with pregelatinized starch, and talc as inactive ingredients. The capsule shells contain gelatin and titanium dioxide. In addition, the orange capsule shells contain iron oxide red and titanium dioxide and the white capsule shells contain titanium dioxide. Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) is a manufacturing aid that may or may not be present in the capsule shells. The imprinting ink contains shellac, black iron oxide and potassium hydroxide.
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