PREVPAC — lansoprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin
Physicians Total Care, Inc.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of PREVPAC and other antibacterial drugs, PREVPAC should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
THESE PRODUCTS ARE INTENDED ONLY FOR USE AS DESCRIBED. The individual products contained in this package should not be used alone or in combination for other purposes. The information described in this labeling concerns only the use of these products as indicated in this daily administration pack. For information on use of the individual components when dispensed as individual medications outside this combined use for treating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) , please see the package inserts for each individual product.
PREVPAC consists of a daily administration card containing two PREVACID 30 mg capsules, four amoxicillin 500-mg capsules, USP, and two clarithromycin 500 mg tablets, USP, for oral administration.
The active ingredient in PREVACID delayed release capsules is lansoprazole, a substituted benzimidazole, 2-[[[3-methyl-4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-2-pyridyl] methyl] sulfinyl] benzimidazole, a compound that inhibits gastric acid secretion. Its empirical formula is C16 H14 F3 N3 O2 S with a molecular weight of 369.37. PREVACID has the following structure:
Lansoprazole is a white to brownish-white odorless crystalline powder which melts with decomposition at approximately 166°C. Lansoprazole is freely soluble in dimethylformamide; soluble in methanol; sparingly soluble in ethanol; slightly soluble in ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetonitrile; very slightly soluble in ether; and practically insoluble in hexane and water.
Each delayed-release capsule contains enteric-coated granules consisting of 30 mg of lansoprazole (active ingredient) and the following inactive ingredients: sugar sphere, sucrose, methacrylic acid copolymer, low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, starch, magnesium carbonate, talc, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide, polysorbate 80, hydroxypropyl cellulose, colloidal silicon dioxide, D&C Red No. 28, FD&C Blue No. 1, and FD&C Red No. 40.
Amoxicillin is a semi synthetic antibiotic, an analogue of ampicillin, with a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Chemically it is (2S , 5R , 6R)-6-[(R)-(-)-2-amino-2-(p -hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0] heptane-2-carboxylic acid trihydrate. Its empirical formula is C16 H19 N3 O5 S • 3H2 O with a molecular weight of 419.45. Amoxicillin has the following structure:
Amoxicillin capsules are intended for oral administration. Each yellow opaque capsule contains amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to 500 mg of amoxicillin.
Inactive ingredients: Capsule shells — yellow ferric oxide, titanium dioxide, gelatin, black ferric oxide; Capsule contents – cellulose microcrystalline and magnesium stearate. Meets USP Dissolution Test 2.
Clarithromycin is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic. Chemically, it is 6-0 -methylerythromycin. The molecular formula is C38 H69 NO13 , and the molecular weight is 747.96. Clarithromycin has the following structure:
Clarithromycin is a white to off-white crystalline powder. It is soluble in acetone, slightly soluble in methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile, and practically insoluble in water. Each yellow oval film-coated immediate-release tablet contains 500 mg of clarithromycin and the following inactive ingredients: hypromellose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, D&C Yellow No. 10, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone, propylene glycol, sorbic acid, sorbitan monooleate, titanium dioxide, and vanillin.
Pharmacokinetics when all three of the PREVPAC components (PREVACID capsules, amoxicillin capsules, clarithromycin tablets) were coadministered has not been studied. Studies have shown no clinically significant interactions of PREVACID and amoxicillin or PREVACID and clarithromycin when administered together. There is no information about the gastric mucosal concentrations of PREVACID, amoxicillin and clarithromycin after administration of these agents concomitantly. The systemic pharmacokinetic information presented below is based on studies in which each product was administered alone.
PREVACID capsules contain an enteric-coated granule formulation of lansoprazole. Absorption of lansoprazole begins only after the granules leave the stomach. Absorption is rapid, with mean peak plasma levels of lansoprazole occurring after approximately 1.7 hours. After a single-dose administration of 15 mg to 60 mg of oral lansoprazole, the peak plasma concentrations (Cmax ) of lansoprazole and the area under the plasma concentration curves (AUCs) of lansoprazole were approximately proportional to the administered dose. Lansoprazole does not accumulate and its pharmacokinetics are unaltered by multiple dosing.
The absorption of lansoprazole is rapid, with the mean Cmax occurring approximately 1.7 hours after oral dosing, and the absolute bioavailability is over 80%. In healthy subjects, the mean (± SD) plasma half-life was 1.5 (± 1.0) hours. Both the Cmax and AUC are diminished by about 50 to 70% if lansoprazole is given 30 minutes after food, compared to the fasting condition. There is no significant food effect if lansoprazole is given before meals.
Lansoprazole is 97% bound to plasma proteins. Plasma protein binding is consistent over the concentration range of 0.05 to 5.0 mcg/mL.
Lansoprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver. Two metabolites have been identified in measurable quantities in plasma (the hydroxylated sulfinyl and sulfone derivatives of lansoprazole). These metabolites have very little or no antisecretory activity. Lansoprazole is thought to be transformed into two active species which inhibit acid secretion by blocking the proton pump [(H+ ,K+)-ATPase enzyme system] at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. The two active species are not present in the systemic circulation. The plasma elimination half-life of lansoprazole is less than 2 hours while the acid inhibitory effect lasts more than 24 hours. Therefore, the plasma elimination half-life of lansoprazole does not reflect its duration of suppression of gastric acid secretion.
Following single-dose oral administration of PREVACID, virtually no unchanged lansoprazole was excreted in the urine. In one study, after a single oral dose of 14 C-lansoprazole, approximately one-third of the administered radiation was excreted in the urine and two-thirds was recovered in the feces. This implies a significant biliary excretion of the lansoprazole metabolites.
Amoxicillin is stable in the presence of gastric acid and may be given without regard to meals. It is rapidly absorbed after oral administration. It diffuses readily into most body tissues and fluids, with the exception of brain and spinal fluid, except when meninges are inflamed. The half-life of amoxicillin is 61.3 minutes. Most of the amoxicillin is excreted unchanged in the urine; its excretion can be delayed by concurrent administration of probenecid. In blood serum, amoxicillin is approximately 20% protein-bound.
Orally administered doses of 500 mg amoxicillin capsules result in average peak blood levels 1 to 2 hours after administration in the range of 5.5 mcg/mL to 7.5 mcg/mL.
Detectable serum levels are observed up to 8 hours after an orally administered dose of amoxicillin. Approximately 60% of an orally administered dose of amoxicillin is excreted in the urine within 6 to 8 hours.
Clarithromycin is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. The absolute bioavailability of 250 mg clarithromycin tablets was approximately 50%. For a single 500 mg dose of clarithromycin, food slightly delays the onset of clarithromycin absorption, increasing the peak time from approximately 2 to 2.5 hours. Food also increases the clarithromycin peak plasma concentration by about 24%, but does not affect the extent of clarithromycin bioavailability. Food does not affect the onset of formation of the antimicrobially active metabolite, 14-OH clarithromycin or its peak plasma concentration but does slightly decrease the extent of metabolite formation, indicated by an 11% decrease in area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). Therefore, clarithromycin tablets may be given without regard to food.
In nonfasting healthy human subjects (males and females), peak plasma concentrations were attained within 2 to 3 hours after oral dosing. Steady-state peak plasma clarithromycin concentrations were attained within 3 days and were approximately 3 to 4 mcg/mL with a 500 mg dose administered every 8 to 12 hours. The elimination half-life of clarithromycin was 5 to 7 hours with 500 mg administered every 8 to 12 hours. The nonlinearity of clarithromycin pharmacokinetics is slight at the recommended dose of 500 mg administered every 8 to 12 hours. With a 500 mg every 8 to 12 hours dosing, the peak steady-state concentration of 14-OH clarithromycin is up to 1 mcg/mL, and its elimination half-life is about 7 to 9 hours. The steady-state concentration of this metabolite is generally attained within 3 to 4 days.
After a 500 mg tablet every 12 hours, the urinary excretion of clarithromycin is approximately 30%. The renal clearance of clarithromycin approximates the normal glomerular filtration rate. The major metabolite found in urine is 14-OH clarithromycin, which accounts for an additional 10% to 15% of the dose with a 500 mg tablet administered every 12 hours.
The steady-state concentrations of clarithromycin in subjects with impaired hepatic function did not differ from those in normal subjects; however, the 14-OH clarithromycin concentrations were lower in the hepatically impaired subjects. The decreased formation of 14-OH clarithromycin was at least partially offset by an increase in renal clearance of clarithromycin in the subjects with impaired hepatic function when compared to healthy subjects.
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