Initiation of PREZCOBIX, which inhibits CYP3A, in patients receiving medications metabolized by CYP3A, or initiation of medications metabolized by CYP3A in patients already receiving PREZCOBIX may increase plasma concentrations of medications metabolized by CYP3A and reduce plasma concentrations of active metabolite(s) formed by CYP3A. Initiation of medications that inhibit or induce CYP3A may respectively increase or decrease concentrations of PREZCOBIX.
These interactions may lead to:
- clinically significant adverse reactions, potentially leading to severe, life threatening, or fatal events from higher exposures of concomitant medications.
- clinically significant adverse reactions from higher exposures of PREZCOBIX.
- loss of therapeutic effect of the concomitant medications from lower exposures of active metabolite(s).
- loss of therapeutic effect of PREZCOBIX and possible development of resistance from lower exposures of PREZCOBIX.
See Table 1 for steps to prevent or manage these possible and known significant drug interactions, including dosing recommendations. Consider the potential for drug interactions prior to and during PREZCOBIX therapy; review concomitant medications during PREZCOBIX therapy; and monitor for the adverse reactions associated with concomitant medications [see Contraindications (4) and Drug Interactions (7)].
When used with concomitant medications, PREZCOBIX may result in different drug interactions than those observed or expected with darunavir co-administered with ritonavir. Complex or unknown mechanisms of drug interactions preclude extrapolation of drug interactions with darunavir co-administered with ritonavir to certain PREZCOBIX interactions [see Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
PREZCOBIX is not recommended in combination with other antiretroviral drugs that require pharmacokinetic boosting (i.e., another protease inhibitor or elvitegravir) because dosing recommendations for such combinations have not been established and co-administration may result in decreased plasma concentrations of the antiretroviral agents, leading to loss of therapeutic effect and development of resistance.
PREZCOBIX is not recommended in combination with products containing the individual components of PREZCOBIX (darunavir and cobicistat) or with ritonavir. For additional recommendations on use of PREZCOBIX with other antiretroviral agents, [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Darunavir contains a sulfonamide moiety. Monitor patients with a known sulfonamide allergy after initiating PREZCOBIX. In clinical studies with darunavir co-administered with ritonavir, the incidence and severity of rash were similar in subjects with or without a history of sulfonamide allergy.
New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of pre-existing diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia have been reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients with HIV-1 infection receiving HIV protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. Some patients required either initiation or dose adjustments of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents for treatment of these events. In some cases, diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred. In those patients who discontinued PI therapy, hyperglycemia persisted in some cases. Because these events have been reported voluntarily during clinical practice, estimates of frequency cannot be made and causal relationships between HIV PI therapy and these events have not been established.
Redistribution/accumulation of body fat, including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement (buffalo hump), peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, and “cushingoid appearance” have been observed in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. The mechanism and long-term consequences of these events are currently unknown. A causal relationship has not been established.
Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, including PREZCOBIX. During the initial phase of combination antiretroviral treatment, patients whose immune systems respond may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections (such as Mycobacterium avium infection, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia [PCP], or tuberculosis), which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment.
Autoimmune disorders (such as Graves’ disease, polymyositis, Guillain-Barré syndrome and autoimmune hepatitis) have also been reported to occur in the setting of immune reconstitution; however, the time to onset is more variable, and can occur many months after initiation of antiretroviral treatment.
There have been reports of increased bleeding, including spontaneous skin hematomas and hemarthrosis in patients with hemophilia type A and B treated with HIV PIs. In some patients, additional factor VIII was given. In more than half of the reported cases, treatment with HIV PIs was continued or reintroduced if treatment had been discontinued. A causal relationship between PI therapy and these episodes has not been established.
The following adverse reactions are discussed in other sections of the labeling:
- Hepatotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Severe skin reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Effects on serum creatinine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- New onset or worsening renal impairment when used with tenofovir DF [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Immune Reconstitution Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
Clinical Trials in Adults
During the darunavir clinical development program, where darunavir was co-administered with ritonavir 100 mg once or twice daily, the most common clinical adverse reactions (incidence greater than or equal to 5%) of at least moderate intensity (greater than or equal to Grade 2) were diarrhea, nausea, rash, headache, abdominal pain, and vomiting. See the darunavir full prescribing information for additional information on adverse reactions reported with darunavir co-administered with ritonavir. See cobicistat full prescribing information for clinical trial information on adverse reactions reported with cobicistat.
One single arm clinical trial was conducted with darunavir and cobicistat administered as single entities in 313 subjects with HIV-1 infection. Adverse reactions evaluated through Week 24 did not differ substantially from those reported in clinical trials with darunavir co-administered with ritonavir.
Clinical Trials in Pediatric Patients
No clinical trials with PREZCOBIX were performed in pediatric patients. However, the safety of the components of PREZCOBIX, darunavir and cobicistat, co-administered with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, was evaluated in pediatric subjects of 12 to less than 18 years of age with HIV-1 infection through clinical trial GS-US-216-0128 (virologically-suppressed, N=7 with weight ≥40 kg) through Week 48. Safety analyses of this trial in these pediatric subjects did not identify new safety concerns compared to the known safety profile of PREZCOBIX in adult subjects [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
The following events have been identified during post-approval use of darunavir. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders
Redistribution of body fat
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders
Rhabdomyolysis (associated with co-administration with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors)
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
Toxic epidermal necrolysis, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
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