PREZCOBIX (Page 5 of 9)

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of PREZCOBIX for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in pediatric patients weighing at least 40 kg was established through a trial with components of PREZCOBIX. Use of PREZCOBIX in this group is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies in adults with additional pharmacokinetic, safety, and virologic data from a study of components of PREZCOBIX (Trial GS-US-216-0128) in pediatric subjects with HIV-1 infection aged 12 to less than 18 years [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), and Clinical Studies (14.2)].

The safety and effectiveness of PREZCOBIX have not been established in pediatric patients weighing less than 40 kg. Darunavir, a component of PREZCOBIX is not recommended in pediatric patients below 3 years of age because of toxicity and mortality observed in juvenile rats dosed with darunavir.

Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data

Darunavir: In a juvenile toxicity study where rats were directly dosed with darunavir (up to 1000 mg/kg), deaths occurred from post-natal day 5 at plasma exposure levels ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 of the human exposure levels. In a 4-week rat toxicology study, when dosing was initiated on post-natal day 23 (the human equivalent of 2 to 3 years of age), no deaths were observed with a plasma exposure (in combination with ritonavir) 2 times the human plasma exposure levels.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical trials of PREZCOBIX did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. In general, caution should be exercised in the administration and monitoring of PREZCOBIX in elderly patients, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.6 Hepatic Impairment

No clinical trials were conducted with darunavir co-administered with cobicistat in hepatically impaired subjects and the effect of hepatic impairment on darunavir exposure when co-administered with cobicistat has not been evaluated. Based on the recommendations for darunavir co-administered with ritonavir, a dose adjustment for patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment is not necessary. No pharmacokinetic or safety data are available regarding the use of darunavir in subjects with severe hepatic impairment. Therefore, PREZCOBIX is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.7 Renal Impairment

A renal impairment trial was not conducted for darunavir co-administered with cobicistat [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Cobicistat has been shown to decrease estimated creatinine clearance without affecting actual renal glomerular function. Dosing recommendations are not available for drugs that require dosage adjustment for renal impairment when used in combination with PREZCOBIX [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].

10 OVERDOSAGE

Human experience of acute overdose with PREZCOBIX is limited. No specific antidote is available for overdose with PREZCOBIX. Treatment of overdose with PREZCOBIX consists of general supportive measures including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the clinical status of the patient. Since both darunavir and cobicistat are highly protein bound, dialysis is unlikely to be beneficial in significant removal of the active substance.

11 DESCRIPTION

PREZCOBIX® is a fixed-dose combination tablet containing darunavir and cobicistat. Darunavir is an inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) protease. Cobicistat is a mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes of the CYP3A family.

PREZCOBIX tablets are for oral administration. Each tablet contains darunavir ethanolate equivalent to 800 mg of darunavir and 150 mg of cobicistat. The tablets include the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, and silicified microcrystalline cellulose. The tablets are film-coated with a coating material containing iron oxide black, iron oxide red, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol (partially hydrolyzed), talc, and titanium dioxide.

Darunavir: Darunavir, in the form of darunavir ethanolate, has the following chemical name: [(1S ,2R)-3-[[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl](2-methylpropyl)amino]-2-hydroxy-1-(phenylmethyl)propyl]-carbamic acid (3R ,3aS ,6aR)-hexahydrofuro[2,3-b ]furan-3-yl ester monoethanolate. Its molecular formula is C27 H37 N3 O7 S ∙ C2 H5 OH and its molecular weight is 593.73. Darunavir ethanolate has the following structural formula:

Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

Cobicistat: Cobicistat is adsorbed onto silicon dioxide. The chemical name for cobicistat is 1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl[(2R ,5R)-5-{[(2S)2-[(methyl{[2-(propan-2-yl)-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]methyl}carbamoyl)amino]-4-(morpholin-4yl)butanoyl]amino}-1,6-diphenylhexan-2-yl]carbamate. It has a molecular formula of C40 H53 N7 O5 S2 and a molecular weight of 776.0. It has the following structural formula:

Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

PREZCOBIX is a fixed-dose combination of an HIV-1 antiviral drug, darunavir and a CYP3A inhibitor, cobicistat [see Microbiology (12.4)].

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Cardiac Electrophysiology

Separate thorough QT trials have been conducted for darunavir co-administered with ritonavir and for cobicistat. The effect of darunavir co-administered with cobicistat on the QT interval has not been evaluated.

Darunavir: In a thorough QT/QTc study in 40 healthy subjects, darunavir doses (co-administered with 100 mg ritonavir) of approximately 2 times the recommended darunavir dose did not affect the QT/QTc interval.

Cobicistat: The effect of a single dose of cobicistat 250 mg and 400 mg (approximately 1.7 and 2.7 times the recommended dose) on QTc interval was evaluated in a randomized, placebo- and active-controlled (moxifloxacin 400 mg) four-period crossover thorough QT trial in 48 healthy subjects. In this trial, no significant QTc prolongation effect of cobicistat was detected. The dose of 400 mg cobicistat is expected to provide information on a high exposure clinical scenario. Prolongation of the PR interval was noted in subjects receiving cobicistat in the same trial. The maximum mean (95% upper confidence bound) difference in PR from placebo after baseline-correction was 9.5 (12.1) msec for 250 mg and 20.2 (22.8) msec for 400 mg of cobicistat.

Effects on Serum Creatinine

Cobicistat: The effect of cobicistat on serum creatinine was investigated in a trial in subjects with normal renal function (eGFR ≥ 80 mL/min, N=12) and mild-to-moderate renal impairment (eGFR 50–79 mL/min, N=18). A statistically significant decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate, calculated by Cockcroft-Gault method (eGFRCG ) from baseline, was observed after 7 days of treatment with cobicistat 150 mg among subjects with normal renal function (-9.9 ± 13.1 mL/min) and mild-to-moderate renal impairment (-11.9 ± 7.0 mL/min). No statistically significant changes in eGFRCG were observed compared to baseline for subjects with normal renal function or mild-to-moderate renal impairment 7 days after cobicistat was discontinued. The actual glomerular filtration rate, as determined by the clearance of probe drug iohexol, was not altered from baseline following treatment of cobicistat among subjects with normal renal function and mild-to-moderate renal impairment, indicating that cobicistat inhibits tubular secretion of creatinine, reflected as a reduction in eGFRCG , without affecting the actual glomerular filtration rate.

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