No dosage adjustments are recommended when PREZISTA/ritonavir is co-administered with the following medications: atazanavir, dolutegravir, efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (abacavir, emtricitabine, emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide, lamivudine, stavudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, zidovudine), pitavastatin, raltegravir, ranitidine, or rilpivirine.
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to PREZISTA during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR) 1-800-258-4263.
Available limited data from the APR show no difference in rate of overall birth defects for darunavir (2.7%) compared with the background rate for major birth defects of 2.7% in a U.S. reference population of the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) [see Data]. The APR uses the MACDP as the U.S. reference population for birth defects in the general population. The MACDP evaluates women and infants from a limited geographic area and does not include outcomes for births that occurred at less than 20 weeks gestation.
The rate of miscarriage is not reported in the APR. The estimated background rate of miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies in the U.S. general population is 15-20%. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.
Studies in animals did not show evidence of developmental toxicity. Exposures (based on AUC) in rats were 3-fold higher, whereas in mice and rabbits, exposures were lower (less than 1-fold) than human exposures at the recommended daily dose [see Data].
The recommended dosage in pregnant patients is PREZISTA 600 mg taken with ritonavir 100 mg twice daily with food.
PREZISTA 800 mg taken with ritonavir 100 mg once daily should only be considered in certain pregnant patients who are already on a stable PREZISTA 800 mg with ritonavir 100 mg once daily regimen prior to pregnancy, are virologically suppressed (HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL), and in whom a change to twice daily PREZISTA 600 mg with ritonavir 100 mg may compromise tolerability or compliance [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
PREZISTA/ritonavir (600/100 mg twice daily or 800/100 mg once daily) in combination with a background regimen was evaluated in a clinical trial of 36 pregnant women during the second and third trimesters, and postpartum. Eighteen subjects were enrolled in each BID and QD treatment arms. Twenty-nine subjects completed the trial through the postpartum period (6–12 weeks after delivery) and 7 subjects discontinued before trial completion, 5 subjects in the BID arm and 2 subjects in the QD arm.
The pharmacokinetic data demonstrate that exposure to darunavir and ritonavir as part of an antiretroviral regimen was lower during pregnancy compared with postpartum (6–12 weeks). Exposure reductions during pregnancy were greater for the once daily regimen as compared to the twice daily regimen [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Virologic response was preserved. In the BID arm, the proportion of subjects with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL were 39% (7/18) at baseline, 61% (11/18) through the third trimester visit, and 61% (11/18) through the 6–12 week postpartum visit. Virologic outcomes during the third trimester visit showed HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies/mL for 11% (2/18) of subjects and were missing for 5 subjects (1 subject discontinued prematurely due to virologic failure). In the QD arm, the proportion of subjects with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL were 61% (11/18) at baseline, 83% (15/18) through the third trimester visit, and 78% (14/18) through the 6–12 week postpartum visit. Virologic outcomes during the third trimester visit showed HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies/mL for none of the subjects and were missing for 3 subjects (1 subject discontinued prematurely due to virologic failure).
PREZISTA/ritonavir was well tolerated during pregnancy and postpartum. There were no new clinically relevant safety findings compared with the known safety profile of PREZISTA/ritonavir in HIV-1-infected adults.
Among the 31 infants with HIV test results available data, born to the 31 HIV-infected pregnant women who completed trial through delivery or postpartum period, all 31 infants had test results that were negative for HIV-1 at the time of delivery and/or through 16 weeks postpartum. All 31 infants received antiretroviral prophylactic treatment containing zidovudine.
Based on prospective reports to the APR of 615 live births following exposure to darunavir-containing regimens during pregnancy (including 385 exposed in the first trimester and 230 exposed in the second/third trimester), there was no difference in rate of overall birth defects for darunavir compared with the background rate for major birth defects in a U.S. reference population of the MACDP.
The prevalence of birth defects in live births was 2.6% (95% CI: 1.2% to 4.7%) with first trimester exposure to darunavir containing regimens and 1.7% (95% CI: 0.5% to 4.4%) with second/third trimester exposure to darunavir containing regimens.
Reproduction studies conducted with darunavir showed no embryotoxicity or teratogenicity in mice (doses up to 1000 mg/kg from gestation day (GD) 6-15 with darunavir alone) and rats (doses up to 1000 mg/kg from GD 7-19 in the presence or absence of ritonavir) as well as in rabbits (doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day from GD 8-20 with darunavir alone). In these studies, darunavir exposures (based on AUC) were higher in rats (3-fold), whereas in mice and rabbits, exposures were lower (less than 1-fold) compared to those obtained in humans at the recommended clinical dose of darunavir boosted with ritonavir.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-infected mothers not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV.
There are no data on the presence of darunavir in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Darunavir is present in the milk of lactating rats [see Data]. Because of the potential for (1) HIV transmission (in HIV-negative infants), (2) developing viral resistance (in HIV-positive infants) and (3) serious adverse reactions in a breastfed infant, instruct mothers not to breastfeed if they are receiving PREZISTA [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
Studies in rats (with darunavir alone or with ritonavir) have demonstrated that darunavir is secreted in the milk. In the rat pre- and postnatal development study, a reduction in pup body weight gain was observed due to exposure of pups to drug substances via milk. The maximal maternal plasma exposures achieved with darunavir (up to 1000 mg/kg with ritonavir) were approximately 50% of those obtained in humans at the recommended clinical dose with ritonavir.
Use of PREZISTA may reduce the efficacy of combined hormonal contraceptives and the progestin only pill. Advise patients to use an effective alternative (non-hormonal) contraceptive method or add a barrier method of contraception. For co-administration with drospirenone, clinical monitoring is recommended due to the potential for hyperkalemia [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].
PREZISTA/ritonavir is not recommended in pediatric patients below 3 years of age because of toxicity and mortality observed in juvenile rats dosed with darunavir (from 20 mg/kg to 1000 mg/kg) up to days 23 to 26 of age [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10) , Use in Specific Populations (8.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
The safety, pharmacokinetic profile, and virologic and immunologic responses of PREZISTA/ritonavir administered twice daily were evaluated in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects 3 to less than 18 years of age and weighting at least 10 kg. These subjects were evaluated in clinical trials TMC114-C212 (80 subjects, 6 to less than 18 years of age) and TMC114-228 (21 subjects, 3 to less than 6 years of age) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) , Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Studies (14.4)]. Frequency, type, and severity of adverse drug reactions in pediatric subjects were comparable to those observed in adults [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Refer to Dosage and Administration (2.5) for twice-daily dosing recommendations for pediatric subjects 3 to less than 18 years of age and weighing at least 10 kg.
In clinical trial TMC114-C230, the safety, pharmacokinetic profile and virologic and immunologic responses of PREZISTA/ritonavir administered once daily were evaluated in treatment-naïve HIV-1 infected pediatric subjects 12 to less than 18 years of age (12 subjects) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) , Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Studies (14.4)]. Frequency, type, and severity of adverse drug reactions in pediatric subjects were comparable to those observed in adults [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Once daily dosing recommendations for pediatric patients 3 to less than 12 years of age were derived using population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation. Although a PREZISTA/ritonavir once daily dosing pediatric trial was not conducted in children less than 12 years of age, there is sufficient clinical safety data to support the predicted PREZISTA exposures for the dosing recommendations in this age group [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Please see Dosage and Administration (2.5) for once-daily dosing recommendations for pediatric subjects 3 to less than 18 years of age and weighing at least 10 kg.
Juvenile Animal Data
In a juvenile toxicity study where rats were directly dosed with darunavir (up to 1000 mg/kg), deaths occurred from post-natal day 5 at plasma exposure levels ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 of the human exposure levels. In a 4-week rat toxicology study, when dosing was initiated on post-natal day 23 (the human equivalent of 2 to 3 years of age), no deaths were observed with a plasma exposure (in combination with ritonavir) 2 times the human plasma exposure levels.
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