Prilosec (Page 6 of 14)

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of PRILOSEC have been established in pediatric patients 1 to 16 years for the treatment of symptomatic GERD, treatment of EE due to acid-mediated GERD, and maintenance of healing of EE due to acid-mediated GERD. Use of PRILOSEC in this age group is supported by adequate and well-controlled studies in adults and uncontrolled safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic studies performed in pediatric and adolescent patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), Clinical Studies (14.8)].

The safety and effectiveness of PRILOSEC have been established in pediatric patients 1 month to less than 1 year of age for the treatment of EE due to acid-mediated GERD and is supported by adequate and well-controlled studies in adults and safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic studies performed in pediatric patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

In the pediatric population, adverse reactions of the respiratory system were frequently reported in the entire (1 month to 16 year) age group. Otitis media was frequently reported in the 1 month to <1 year age group, fever was frequently reported in the 1 to <2 year age group, and accidental injuries were frequently reported in the 2 to 16 year age group [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

The safety and effectiveness of PRILOSEC have not been established in:

patients less than 1 year of age for:
o
Treatment of symptomatic GERD
o
Maintenance of healing of EE due to acid-mediated GERD
pediatric patients for:
o
Treatment of active duodenal ulcer
o
H. pylori eradication to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence
o
Treatment of active benign gastric ulcer
o
Pathological hypersecretory conditions
patients less than 1 month of age for any indication.

Juvenile Animal Data

Esomeprazole, an enantiomer of omeprazole, was shown to decrease body weight, body weight gain, femur weight, femur length, and overall growth at oral doses about 34 to 68 times a daily human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole based on body surface area in a juvenile rat toxicity study. The animal to human dose multiples are based on the assumption of equal systemic exposure to esomeprazole in humans following oral administration of either 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole.

A 28-day toxicity study with a 14-day recovery phase was conducted in juvenile rats with esomeprazole magnesium at doses of 70 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 17 to 68 times a daily oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). An increase in the number of deaths at the high dose of 280 mg/kg/day was observed when juvenile rats were administered esomeprazole magnesium from postnatal day 7 through postnatal day 35. In addition, doses equal to or greater than 140 mg/kg/day (about 34 times a daily oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis), produced treatment-related decreases in body weight (approximately 14%) and body weight gain, decreases in femur weight and femur length, and affected overall growth. Comparable findings described above have also been observed in this study with another esomeprazole salt, esomeprazole strontium, at equimolar doses of esomeprazole.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Omeprazole was administered to over 2000 elderly individuals (≥ 65 years of age) in clinical trials in the U.S. and Europe. There were no differences in safety and effectiveness between the elderly and younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Pharmacokinetic studies have shown the elimination rate was somewhat decreased in the elderly and bioavailability was increased. The plasma clearance of omeprazole was 250 mL/min (about half that of young volunteers) and its plasma half-life averaged one hour, about twice that of young healthy volunteers. However, no dosage adjustment is necessary in the elderly [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.6 Hepatic Impairment

In patients with hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A, B, or C) exposure to omeprazole substantially increased compared to healthy subjects. Dosage reduction of PRILOSEC to 10 mg once daily is recommended for patients with hepatic impairment for maintenance of healing of EE [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.7 Asian Population

In studies of healthy subjects, Asians had approximately a four-fold higher exposure than Caucasians. Dosage reduction of PRILOSEC to 10 mg once daily is recommended for Asian patients for maintenance of healing of EE [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)].

10 OVERDOSAGE

Reports have been received of overdosage with omeprazole in humans. Doses ranged up to 2400 mg (120 times the usual recommended clinical dose). Manifestations were variable, but included confusion, drowsiness, blurred vision, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, flushing, headache, dry mouth, and other adverse reactions similar to those seen in normal clinical experience [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. Symptoms were transient, and no serious clinical outcome has been reported when PRILOSEC was taken alone. No specific antidote for omeprazole overdosage is known. Omeprazole is extensively protein bound and is, therefore, not readily dialyzable. In the event of overdosage, treatment should be symptomatic and supportive.

If over-exposure occurs, call your Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222 for current information on the management of poisoning or overdosage.

11 DESCRIPTION

The active ingredient in PRILOSEC (omeprazole magnesium) for delayed-release oral suspension, is 5-Methoxy-2-[[(4-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-2-pyridinyl)methyl]sulfinyl]-1H -benzimidazole, magnesium salt (2:1).

Omeprazole magnesium is a white to off white powder with a melting point with degradation at 200°C. The salt is slightly soluble (0.25 mg/mL) in water at 25°C, and it is soluble in methanol. The half-life is highly pH dependent.

The empirical formula for omeprazole magnesium is (C17 H18 N3 O3 S)2 Mg, the molecular weight is 713.12 and the structural formula is:

omeprazole magnesium structural formula
(click image for full-size original)

Each packet of PRILOSEC for delayed-release oral suspension contains either 2.5 mg or 10 mg of omeprazole (equivalent to 2.8 mg or 11.2 mg of omeprazole magnesium trihydrate), in the form of enteric-coated granules with the following inactive ingredients: glyceryl monostearate, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, methacrylic acid copolymer C, polysorbate, sugar spheres, talc, and triethyl citrate, and also inactive granules. The inactive granules are composed of the following ingredients: citric acid, crospovidone, dextrose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, iron oxide and xanthan gum. The omeprazole granules and inactive granules are constituted with water to form a suspension and are given by oral, nasogastric, or direct gastric administration.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Omeprazole belongs to a class of antisecretory compounds, the substituted benzimidazoles, that suppress gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the H+ /K+ ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. Because this enzyme system is regarded as the acid (proton) pump within the gastric mucosa, omeprazole has been characterized as a gastric acid-pump inhibitor, in that it blocks the final step of acid production. This effect is dose-related and leads to inhibition of both basal and stimulated acid secretion irrespective of the stimulus.

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