Prilosec (Page 8 of 14)

12.4 Microbiology

Omeprazole and clarithromycin dual therapy and omeprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin triple therapy have been shown to be active against most strains of Helicobacter pylori in vitro and in clinical infections [see Indications and Usage (1.2), Clinical Studies (14.2)].

Helicobacter pylori

Susceptibility testing of H. pylori isolates was performed for amoxicillin and clarithromycin using agar dilution methodology1 , and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined.

Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures.

Pretreatment Resistance

Clarithromycin pretreatment resistance rates were 3.5% (4/113) in the omeprazole/clarithromycin dual therapy studies (4 and 5) and 9.3% (41/439) in omeprazole/clarithromycin/amoxicillin triple therapy studies (1, 2 and 3).

Amoxicillin pretreatment susceptible isolates (≤ 0.25 µg/mL) were found in 99.3% (436/439) of the patients in the omeprazole/clarithromycin/amoxicillin triple therapy studies (1, 2, and 3). Amoxicillin pretreatment minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) > 0.25 µg/mL occurred in 0.7% (3/439) of the patients, all of whom were in the clarithromycin and amoxicillin study arm. One patient had an unconfirmed pretreatment amoxicillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of > 256 µg/mL by Etest®.

Table 8: Clarithromycin Susceptibility Test Results and Clinical/Bacteriological Outcomes
*
Includes only patients with pretreatment clarithromycin susceptibility test results.
Susceptible (S) MIC ≤ 0.25 μg/mL, Intermediate (I) MIC 0.5-1.0 μg/mL, Resistant (R) MIC ≥ 2 μg/mL.

Clarithromycin Susceptibility Test Results and Clinical/Bacteriological Outcomes *

Clarithromycin Pretreatment Results

Clarithromycin Post-treatment Results

H. pylori negative – eradicated

H. pylori positive – not eradicated

Post-treatment susceptibility results

S

I

R

No MIC

Dual Therapy – (omeprazole 40 mg once daily/clarithromycin 500 three times daily for 14 days followed by omeprazole 20 mg once daily for another 14 days) (Studies 4, 5)

Susceptible

108

72

1

26

9

Intermediate

1

1

Resistant

4

4

Triple Therapy – (omeprazole 20 mg twice daily/clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily/amoxicillin 1 g twice daily for 10 days – Studies 1, 2, 3; followed by omeprazole 20 mg once daily for another 18 days – Studies 1, 2)

Susceptible

171

153

7

3

8

Intermediate

Resistant

14

4

1

6

3

Patients not eradicated of H. pylori following omeprazole/clarithromycin/amoxicillin triple therapy or omeprazole/clarithromycin dual therapy will likely have clarithromycin resistant H. pylori isolates. Therefore, clarithromycin susceptibility testing should be done, if possible. Patients with clarithromycin resistant H. pylori should not be treated with any of the following: omeprazole/clarithromycin dual therapy, omeprazole/clarithromycin/amoxicillin triple therapy, or other regimens which include clarithromycin as the sole antimicrobial agent.

Amoxicillin Susceptibility Test Results and Clinical/Bacteriological Outcomes

In the triple therapy clinical trials, 84.9% (157/185) of the patients in the omeprazole/clarithromycin/amoxicillin treatment group who had pretreatment amoxicillin susceptible MICs (≤ 0.25 µg/mL) were eradicated of H. pylori and 15.1% (28/185) failed therapy. Of the 28 patients who failed triple therapy, 11 had no post-treatment susceptibility test results and 17 had post-treatment H. pylori isolates with amoxicillin susceptible MICs. Eleven of the patients who failed triple therapy also had post-treatment H. pylori isolates with clarithromycin resistant MICs.

Susceptibility Test for Helicobacter pylori

For susceptibility testing information about Helicobacter pylori , see Microbiology section in prescribing information for clarithromycin and amoxicillin.

Effects on Gastrointestinal Microbial Ecology

Decreased gastric acidity due to any means including proton pump inhibitors, increases gastric counts of bacteria normally present in the gastrointestinal tract. Treatment with proton pump inhibitors may lead to slightly increased risk of gastrointestinal infections such as Salmonella and Campylobacter and, in hospitalized patients, possibly also Clostridium difficile.

12.5 Pharmacogenomics

CYP2C19, a polymorphic enzyme, is involved in the metabolism of omeprazole. The CYP2C19*1 allele is fully functional while the CYP2C19*2 and *3 alleles are nonfunctional. There are other alleles associated with no or reduced enzymatic function. Patients carrying two fully functional alleles are extensive metabolizers and those carrying two loss-of-function alleles are poor metabolizers. In extensive metabolizers, omeprazole is primarily metabolized by CYP2C19. The systemic exposure to omeprazole varies with a patient’s metabolism status: poor metabolizers > intermediate metabolizers > extensive metabolizers. Approximately 3% of Caucasians and 15 to 20% of Asians are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers.

In a pharmacokinetic study of single 20 mg omeprazole dose, the AUC of omeprazole in Asian subjects was approximately four-fold of that in Caucasians [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].

All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.

This site is provided for educational and informational purposes only, in accordance with our Terms of Use, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner or other qualified health professional.

Privacy Policy | Copyright © 2019. All Rights Reserved.