PROHANCE- gadoteridol injection, solution
Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) increase the risk for NSF among patients with impaired elimination of the drugs. Avoid use of GBCAs in these patients unless the diagnostic information is essential and not available with non-contrasted MRI or other modalities. NSF may result in fatal or debilitating systemic fibrosis affecting the skin, muscle and internal organs.
- The risk for NSF appears highest among patients with:
- chronic, severe kidney disease (GFR <30 mL/min/1.73m2), or
- acute kidney injury.
- Screen patients for acute kidney injury and other conditions that may reduce renal function. For patients at risk for chronically reduced renal function (e.g. age > 60 years, hypertension or diabetes), estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) through laboratory testing.
- For patients at highest risk for NSF, do not exceed the recommended ProHance dose and allow a sufficient period of time for elimination of the drug from the body prior to re-administration (see WARNINGS).
ProHance (Gadoteridol) Injection is a nonionic contrast medium for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), available as a 0.5M sterile clear colorless to slightly yellow aqueous solution in vials and syringes for intravenous injection.
Gadoteridol is the gadolinium complex of 10-(2-hydroxy-propyl)-1,4,7,10- tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid with a molecular weight of 558.7, an empirical formula of C17 H29 N4 O7 Gd and has the following structural formula:
|Osmolality (mOsmol/kg water)|
|@ 37° C||630|
|(cP)||@ 20° C||2.0|
|@ 37° C||1.3|
|@ 25° C||1.140|
|(g/mL)||@ 25° C||1.137|
|Octanol: H2 O coefficient||-3.68 ± 0.02|
The pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered gadoteridol in normal subjects conforms to a two-compartment open model with mean distribution and elimination half-lives (reported as mean ± SD) of about 0.20 ± 0.04 hours and 1.57 ± 0.08 hours, respectively.
Gadoteridol is eliminated in the urine with 94.4 ± 4.8% (mean ± SD) of the dose excreted within 24 hours post-injection. It is unknown if biotransformation or decomposition of gadoteridol occur in vivo.
The renal and plasma clearance rates (1.41 ± 0.33 mL/ min/kg and 1.50 ± 0.35 mL/ min/kg, respectively) of gadoteridol are essentially identical, indicating no alteration in elimination kinetics on passage through the kidneys and that the drug is essentially cleared through the kidney. The volume of distribution (204 ± 58 mL/kg) is equal to that of extracellular water, and clearance is similar to that of substances which are subject to glomerular filtration.
Gadoteridol is a paramagnetic agent and, as such, develops a magnetic moment when placed in a magnetic field. The relatively large magnetic moment produced by the paramagnetic agent results in a relatively large local magnetic field, which can enhance the relaxation rates of water protons in the vicinity of the paramagnetic agent.
In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), visualization of normal and pathologic brain tissue depends in part on variations in the radiofrequency signal intensity that occur with 1) differences in proton density; 2) differences of the spin-lattice or longitudinal relaxation times (T1); and 3) differences in the spin-spin or transverse relaxation time (T2). When placed in a magnetic field, gadoteridol decreases T1 relaxation times in the target tissues. At recommended doses, the effect is observed with greatest sensitivity in the T1-weighted sequences.
Gadoteridol does not cross the intact blood-brain barrier and, therefore, does not accumulate in normal brain or in lesions that have a normal blood-brain barrier, e.g., cysts, mature post-operative scars, etc. However, disruption of the blood-brain barrier or abnormal vascularity allows accumulation of gadoteridol in lesions such as neoplasms, abscesses, and subacute infarcts. The pharmacokinetics of ProHance in various lesions is not known.
ProHance was evaluated in two blinded read trials in a total of 133 adults who had an indication for head and neck extracranial or extraspinal magnetic resonance imaging. These 133 adults (74 men, 59 women) had a mean age of 53 with a range of 19 to 76 years. Of these patients, 85% were Caucasian, 13% Black, 2% Asian, and < 1% other. The results of the non-contrast and gadoteridol MRI scans were compared. In this database, approximately 75-82% of the scans were enhanced. 45-48% of the scans provided additional diagnostic information, and 8-25% of the diagnoses were changed. The relevance of the findings to disease sensitivity and specificity has not been fully evaluated.
ProHance was evaluated in a multicenter clinical trial of 103 children who had an indication for a brain or spine MRI. These 103 children, (54 boys and 49 girls) had a mean age of 8.7 years with an age range of 2 to 20 years. Of these 103 children, 54 were between 2 and 12 years of age. Also, of these 103 children, 74% were Caucasian, 11% Black, 12% Hispanic, 2% Asian, and 2% other. The results of the non-contrast and gadoteridol MRI scans were compared. ProHance was given in one single 0.1 mmol/kg dose. Repeat dosing was not studied. In this database, MRI enhancement was noted in approximately 60% of the scans and additional diagnostic information in 30-95% of the scans.
ProHance (Gadoteridol) Injection is indicated for use in MRI in adults and children over 2 years of age to visualize lesions with abnormal vascularity in the brain (intracranial lesions), spine and associated tissues.
Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) increase the risk for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) among patients with impaired elimination of the drugs. Avoid use of GBCAs among these patients unless the diagnostic information is essential and not available with non-contrast enhanced MRI or other modalities. The GBCA-associated NSF risk appears highest for patients with chronic, severe kidney disease (GFR <30 mL/min/1.73m2) as well as patients with acute kidney injury. The risk appears lower for patients with chronic, moderate kidney disease (GFR 30-59 mL/min/1.73m2) and little, if any, for patients with chronic, mild kidney disease (GFR 60-89 mL/min/1.73m2). NSF may result in fatal or debilitating fibrosis affecting the skin, muscle and internal organs. Report any diagnosis of NSF following ProHance administration to Bracco Diagnostics (1-800-257-8151) or FDA (1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch).
Screen patients for acute kidney injury and other conditions that may reduce renal function. Features of acute kidney injury consist of rapid (over hours to days) and usually reversible decrease in kidney function, commonly in the setting of surgery, severe infection, injury or drug-induced kidney toxicity. Serum creatinine levels and estimated GFR may not reliably assess renal function in the setting of acute kidney injury. For patients at risk for chronically reduced renal function (e.g., age > 60 years, diabetes mellitus or chronic hypertension), estimate the GFR through laboratory testing.
Among the factors that may increase the risk for NSF are repeated or higher than recommended doses of a GBCA and the degree of renal impairment at the time of exposure. Record the specific GBCA and the dose administered to a patient. For patients at highest risk for NSF, do not exceed the recommended ProHance dose and allow a sufficient period of time for elimination of the drug prior to re-administration. For patients receiving hemodialysis, physicians may consider the prompt initiation of hemodialysis following the administration of a GBCA in order to enhance the contrast agent’s elimination. The usefulness of hemodialysis in the prevention of NSF is unknown (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
In patients with chronically reduced renal function, acute kidney injury requiring dialysis has occurred with the use of GBCAs. The risk of acute kidney injury may increase with increasing dose of the contrast agent; administer the lowest dose necessary for adequate imaging.
Severe and fatal hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis have been observed with administration of gadolinium products, including ProHance. Patients with a history of allergy, drug reactions or other hypersensitivity-like disorders should be closely observed during the procedure and for several hours after drug administration. If a reaction occurs, stop ProHance and immediately begin appropriate therapy including resuscitation. (See PRECAUTIONS — General)
Deoxygenated sickle erythrocytes have been shown in in vitro studies to align perpendicular to a magnetic field which may result in vaso-occlusive complications in vivo. The enhancement of magnetic moment by ProHance may possibly potentiate sickle erythrocyte alignment. ProHance in patients with sickle cell anemia and other hemoglobinopathies has not been studied.
Patients with a history of allergy, drug reactions or other hypersensitivity-like disorders should be closely observed during the procedure and for several hours after drug administration. (See PRECAUTIONS-General).
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