Prolia (Page 2 of 9)


  • 1 mL of a 60 mg/mL solution in a single-dose prefilled syringe.


Prolia is contraindicated in:

  • Hypocalcemia: Pre-existing hypocalcemia must be corrected prior to initiating therapy with Prolia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
  • Pregnancy: Prolia may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. In women of reproductive potential, pregnancy testing should be performed prior to initiating treatment with Prolia [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
  • Hypersensitivity: Prolia is contraindicated in patients with a history of systemic hypersensitivity to any component of the product. Reactions have included anaphylaxis, facial swelling, and urticaria [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Adverse Reactions (6.2)].


5.1 Drug Products with Same Active Ingredient

Prolia contains the same active ingredient (denosumab) found in Xgeva. Patients receiving Prolia should not receive Xgeva.

5.2 Hypersensitivity

Clinically significant hypersensitivity including anaphylaxis has been reported with Prolia. Symptoms have included hypotension, dyspnea, throat tightness, facial and upper airway edema, pruritus, and urticaria. If an anaphylactic or other clinically significant allergic reaction occurs, initiate appropriate therapy and discontinue further use of Prolia [see Contraindications (4), Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

5.3 Hypocalcemia and Mineral Metabolism

Hypocalcemia may be exacerbated by the use of Prolia. Pre-existing hypocalcemia must be corrected prior to initiating therapy with Prolia. In patients predisposed to hypocalcemia and disturbances of mineral metabolism (e.g. history of hypoparathyroidism, thyroid surgery, parathyroid surgery, malabsorption syndromes, excision of small intestine, severe renal impairment [creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min] or receiving dialysis, treatment with other calcium-lowering drugs), clinical monitoring of calcium and mineral levels (phosphorus and magnesium) is highly recommended within 14 days of Prolia injection. In some postmarketing cases, hypocalcemia persisted for weeks or months and required frequent monitoring and intravenous and/or oral calcium replacement, with or without vitamin D.

Hypocalcemia following Prolia administration is a significant risk in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min) or receiving dialysis. These patients may also develop marked elevations of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH). Concomitant use of calcimimetic drugs may worsen hypocalcemia risk and serum calcium should be closely monitored. Instruct all patients with severe renal impairment, including those receiving dialysis, about the symptoms of hypocalcemia and the importance of maintaining calcium levels with adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation.

Adequately supplement all patients with calcium and vitamin D [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Contraindications (4), Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].

5.4 Osteonecrosis of the Jaw

Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), which can occur spontaneously, is generally associated with tooth extraction and/or local infection with delayed healing. ONJ has been reported in patients receiving denosumab [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. A routine oral exam should be performed by the prescriber prior to initiation of Prolia treatment. A dental examination with appropriate preventive dentistry is recommended prior to treatment with Prolia in patients with risk factors for ONJ such as invasive dental procedures (e.g. tooth extraction, dental implants, oral surgery), diagnosis of cancer, concomitant therapies (e.g. chemotherapy, corticosteroids, angiogenesis inhibitors), poor oral hygiene, and comorbid disorders (e.g. periodontal and/or other pre-existing dental disease, anemia, coagulopathy, infection, ill-fitting dentures). Good oral hygiene practices should be maintained during treatment with Prolia. Concomitant administration of drugs associated with ONJ may increase the risk of developing ONJ. The risk of ONJ may increase with duration of exposure to Prolia.

For patients requiring invasive dental procedures, clinical judgment of the treating physician and/or oral surgeon should guide the management plan of each patient based on individual benefit-risk assessment.

Patients who are suspected of having or who develop ONJ while on Prolia should receive care by a dentist or an oral surgeon. In these patients, extensive dental surgery to treat ONJ may exacerbate the condition. Discontinuation of Prolia therapy should be considered based on individual benefit-risk assessment.

5.5 Atypical Subtrochanteric and Diaphyseal Femoral Fractures

Atypical low energy or low trauma fractures of the shaft have been reported in patients receiving Prolia [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. These fractures can occur anywhere in the femoral shaft from just below the lesser trochanter to above the supracondylar flare and are transverse or short oblique in orientation without evidence of comminution. Causality has not been established as these fractures also occur in osteoporotic patients who have not been treated with antiresorptive agents.

Atypical femoral fractures most commonly occur with minimal or no trauma to the affected area. They may be bilateral, and many patients report prodromal pain in the affected area, usually presenting as dull, aching thigh pain, weeks to months before a complete fracture occurs. A number of reports note that patients were also receiving treatment with glucocorticoids (e.g. prednisone) at the time of fracture.

During Prolia treatment, patients should be advised to report new or unusual thigh, hip, or groin pain. Any patient who presents with thigh or groin pain should be suspected of having an atypical fracture and should be evaluated to rule out an incomplete femur fracture. Patient presenting with an atypical femur fracture should also be assessed for symptoms and signs of fracture in the contralateral limb. Interruption of Prolia therapy should be considered, pending a benefit-risk assessment, on an individual basis.

5.6 Multiple Vertebral Fractures (MVF) Following Discontinuation of Prolia Treatment

Following discontinuation of Prolia treatment, fracture risk increases, including the risk of multiple vertebral fractures. Treatment with Prolia results in significant suppression of bone turnover and cessation of Prolia treatment results in increased bone turnover above pretreatment values 9 months after the last dose of Prolia. Bone turnover then returns to pretreatment values 24 months after the last dose of Prolia. In addition, bone mineral density returns to pretreatment values within 18 months after the last injection [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2), Clinical Studies (14.1)].

New vertebral fractures occurred as early as 7 months (on average 19 months) after the last dose of Prolia. Prior vertebral fracture was a predictor of multiple vertebral fractures after Prolia discontinuation. Evaluate an individual’s benefit-risk before initiating treatment with Prolia.

If Prolia treatment is discontinued, patients should be transitioned to an alternative antiresorptive therapy [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

5.7 Serious Infections

In a clinical trial of over 7800 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, serious infections leading to hospitalization were reported more frequently in the Prolia group than in the placebo group [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Serious skin infections, as well as infections of the abdomen, urinary tract, and ear, were more frequent in patients treated with Prolia. Endocarditis was also reported more frequently in Prolia-treated patients. The incidence of opportunistic infections was similar between placebo and Prolia groups, and the overall incidence of infections was similar between the treatment groups. Advise patients to seek prompt medical attention if they develop signs or symptoms of severe infection, including cellulitis.

Patients on concomitant immunosuppressant agents or with impaired immune systems may be at increased risk for serious infections. Consider the benefit-risk profile in such patients before treating with Prolia. In patients who develop serious infections while on Prolia, prescribers should assess the need for continued Prolia therapy.

5.8 Dermatologic Adverse Reactions

In a large clinical trial of over 7800 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, epidermal and dermal adverse events such as dermatitis, eczema, and rashes occurred at a significantly higher rate in the Prolia group compared to the placebo group. Most of these events were not specific to the injection site [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Consider discontinuing Prolia if severe symptoms develop.

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