No dose adjustment is necessary in patients with renal impairment.
In clinical studies, patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min) or receiving dialysis were at greater risk of developing hypocalcemia. Consider the benefit-risk profile when administering Prolia to patients with severe renal impairment or receiving dialysis. Clinical monitoring of calcium and mineral levels (phosphorus and magnesium) is highly recommended. Adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D is important in patients with severe renal impairment or receiving dialysis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
No clinical studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of Prolia.
There is no experience with overdosage with Prolia.
Prolia (denosumab) is a human IgG2 monoclonal antibody with affinity and specificity for human RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand). Denosumab has an approximate molecular weight of 147 kDa and is produced in genetically engineered mammalian (Chinese hamster ovary) cells.
Prolia is a sterile, preservative-free, clear, colorless to pale yellow solution.
Each 1 mL single-dose prefilled syringe of Prolia contains 60 mg denosumab (60 mg/mL solution), 4.7% sorbitol, 17 mM acetate, 0.01% polysorbate 20, Water for Injection (USP), and sodium hydroxide to a pH of 5.2.
Prolia binds to RANKL, a transmembrane or soluble protein essential for the formation, function, and survival of osteoclasts, the cells responsible for bone resorption. Prolia prevents RANKL from activating its receptor, RANK, on the surface of osteoclasts and their precursors. Prevention of the RANKL/RANK interaction inhibits osteoclast formation, function, and survival, thereby decreasing bone resorption and increasing bone mass and strength in both cortical and trabecular bone.
In clinical studies, treatment with 60 mg of Prolia resulted in reduction in the bone resorption marker serum type 1 C-telopeptide (CTX) by approximately 85% by 3 days, with maximal reductions occurring by 1 month. CTX levels were below the limit of assay quantitation (0.049 ng/mL) in 39% to 68% of patients 1 to 3 months after dosing of Prolia. At the end of each dosing interval, CTX reductions were partially attenuated from a maximal reduction of ≥ 87% to ≥ 45% (range: 45% to 80%), as serum denosumab levels diminished, reflecting the reversibility of the effects of Prolia on bone remodeling. These effects were sustained with continued treatment. Upon reinitiation, the degree of inhibition of CTX by Prolia was similar to that observed in patients initiating Prolia treatment.
Consistent with the physiological coupling of bone formation and resorption in skeletal remodeling, subsequent reductions in bone formation markers (i.e. osteocalcin and procollagen type 1 N-terminal peptide [P1NP]) were observed starting 1 month after the first dose of Prolia. After discontinuation of Prolia therapy, markers of bone resorption increased to levels 40% to 60% above pretreatment values but returned to baseline levels within 12 months.
In a study conducted in healthy male and female volunteers (n = 73, age range: 18 to 64 years) following a single subcutaneously administered Prolia dose of 60 mg after fasting (at least for 12 hours), the mean maximum denosumab concentration (Cmax ) was 6.75 mcg/mL (standard deviation [SD] = 1.89 mcg/mL). The median time to maximum denosumab concentration (Tmax ) was 10 days (range: 3 to 21 days). After Cmax , serum denosumab concentrations declined over a period of 4 to 5 months with a mean half-life of 25.4 days (SD = 8.5 days; n = 46). The mean area-under-the-concentration-time curve up to 16 weeks (AUC0-16 weeks ) of denosumab was 316 mcg∙day/mL (SD = 101 mcg∙day/mL).
No accumulation or change in denosumab pharmacokinetics with time was observed upon multiple dosing of 60 mg subcutaneously administered once every 6 months.
Prolia pharmacokinetics were not affected by the formation of binding antibodies.
A population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of demographic characteristics. This analysis showed no notable differences in pharmacokinetics with age (in postmenopausal women), race, or body weight (36 to 140 kg).
Seminal Fluid Pharmacokinetic Study
Serum and seminal fluid concentrations of denosumab were measured in 12 healthy male volunteers (age range: 43-65 years). After a single 60 mg subcutaneous administration of denosumab, the mean (± SD) Cmax values in the serum and seminal fluid samples were 6170 (± 2070) and 100 (± 81.9) ng/mL, respectively, resulting in a maximum seminal fluid concentration of approximately 2% of serum levels. The median (range) Tmax values in the serum and seminal fluid samples were 8.0 (7.9 to 21) and 21 (8.0 to 49) days, respectively. Among the subjects, the highest denosumab concentration in seminal fluid was 301 ng/mL at 22 days post-dose. On the first day of measurement (10 days post-dose), nine of eleven subjects had quantifiable concentrations in semen. On the last day of measurement (106 days post-dose), five subjects still had quantifiable concentrations of denosumab in seminal fluid, with a mean (± SD) seminal fluid concentration of 21.1 (± 36.5) ng/mL across all subjects (n = 12).
In a study of 19 postmenopausal women with low BMD and rheumatoid arthritis treated with etanercept (50 mg subcutaneous injection once weekly), a single-dose of denosumab (60 mg subcutaneous injection) was administered 7 days after the previous dose of etanercept. No clinically significant changes in the pharmacokinetics of etanercept were observed.
Cytochrome P450 substrates
In a study of 17 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, midazolam (2 mg oral) was administered 2 weeks after a single-dose of denosumab (60 mg subcutaneous injection), which approximates the Tmax of denosumab. Denosumab did not affect the pharmacokinetics of midazolam, which is metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). This indicates that denosumab should not alter the pharmacokinetics of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4 in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
Gender: Mean serum denosumab concentration-time profiles observed in a study conducted in healthy men ≥ 50 years were similar to those observed in a study conducted in postmenopausal women using the same dose regimen.
Age: The pharmacokinetics of denosumab were not affected by age across all populations studied whose ages ranged from 28 to 87 years.
Race: The pharmacokinetics of denosumab were not affected by race.
Renal Impairment: In a study of 55 patients with varying degrees of renal function, including patients on dialysis, the degree of renal impairment had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of denosumab; thus, dose adjustment for renal impairment is not necessary.
Hepatic Impairment: No clinical studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of denosumab.
The carcinogenic potential of denosumab has not been evaluated in long-term animal studies.
The genotoxic potential of denosumab has not been evaluated.
Impairment of Fertility
Denosumab had no effect on female fertility or male reproductive organs in monkeys at doses that were 13- to 50-fold higher than the recommended human dose of 60 mg subcutaneously administered once every 6 months, based on body weight (mg/kg).
Denosumab is an inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resorption via inhibition of RANKL.
In ovariectomized monkeys, once-monthly treatment with denosumab suppressed bone turnover and increased bone mineral density (BMD) and strength of cancellous and cortical bone at doses 50-fold higher than the recommended human dose of 60 mg administered once every 6 months, based on body weight (mg/kg). Bone tissue was normal with no evidence of mineralization defects, accumulation of osteoid, or woven bone.
Because the biological activity of denosumab in animals is specific to nonhuman primates, evaluation of genetically engineered (“knockout”) mice or use of other biological inhibitors of the RANK/RANKL pathway, namely OPG-Fc, provided additional information on the pharmacodynamic properties of denosumab. RANK/RANKL knockout mice exhibited absence of lymph node formation, as well as an absence of lactation due to inhibition of mammary gland maturation (lobulo-alveolar gland development during pregnancy). Neonatal RANK/RANKL knockout mice exhibited reduced bone growth and lack of tooth eruption. A corroborative study in 2-week-old rats given the RANKL inhibitor OPG-Fc also showed reduced bone growth, altered growth plates, and impaired tooth eruption. These changes were partially reversible in this model when dosing with the RANKL inhibitors was discontinued.
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