Promethazine Hydrochloride (Page 2 of 3)

Other Considerations

Administration of promethazine hydrochloride has been associated with reported cholestatic jaundice.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Drugs having anticholinergic properties should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, stenosing peptic ulcer, pyloroduodenal obstruction, and bladder-neck obstruction.

Promethazine hydrochloride tablets should be used cautiously in persons with cardiovascular disease or with impairment of liver function.

Information for Patients

Promethazine hydrochloride tablets may cause marked drowsiness or impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks, such as driving a vehicle or operating machinery. The use of alcohol or other central nervous system depressants such as sedatives/hypnotics (including barbiturates), narcotics, narcotic analgesics, general anesthetics, tricyclic antidepressants, and tranquilizers, may enhance impairment (see WARNINGS: CNS Depression and PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions). Pediatric patients should be supervised to avoid potential harm in bike riding or in other hazardous activities.

Patients should be advised to report any involuntary muscle movements.

Avoid prolonged exposure to the sun.

Drug Interactions

CNS Depressants

Promethazine hydrochloride tablets may increase, prolong, or intensify the sedative action of other central nervous system depressants, such as alcohol, sedatives/hypnotics (including barbiturates), narcotics, narcotic analgesics, general anesthetics, tricyclic antidepressants, and tranquilizers; therefore, such agents should be avoided or administered in reduced dosage to patients receiving promethazine hydrochloride. When given concomitantly with promethazine hydrochloride tablets, the dose of barbiturates should be reduced by at least one-half, and the dose of narcotics should be reduced by one-quarter to one-half. Dosage must be individualized. Excessive amounts of promethazine hydrochloride relative to a narcotic may lead to restlessness and motor hyperactivity in the patient with pain; these symptoms usually disappear with adequate control of the pain.

Epinephrine

Because of the potential for promethazine hydrochloride to reverse epinephrine’s vasopressor effect, epinephrine should NOT be used to treat hypotension associated with promethazine hydrochloride tablets overdose.

Anticholinergics

Concomitant use of other agents with anticholinergic properties should be undertaken with caution.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI)

Drug interactions, including an increased incidence of extrapyramidal effects, have been reported when some MAOI and phenothiazines are used concomitantly. This possibility should be considered with promethazine hydrochloride tablets.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

The following laboratory tests may be affected in patients who are receiving therapy with promethazine hydrochloride:

Pregnancy Tests

Diagnostic pregnancy tests based on immunological reactions between HCG and anti-HCG may result in false-negative or false-positive interpretations.

Glucose Tolerance Test

An increase in blood glucose has been reported in patients receiving promethazine hydrochloride.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term animal studies have not been performed to assess the carcinogenic potential of promethazine, nor are there other animal or human data concerning carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or impairment of fertility with this drug. Promethazine was nonmutagenic in the Salmonella test system of Ames.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C

Teratogenic effects have not been demonstrated in rat-feeding studies at doses of 6.25 and 12.5 mg/kg of promethazine hydrochloride. These doses are from approximately 2.1 to 4.2 times the maximum recommended total daily dose of promethazine for a 50 kg subject, depending upon the indication for which the drug is prescribed. Daily doses of 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally have been found to produce fetal mortality in rats.

Specific studies to test the action of the drug on parturition, lactation, and development of the animal neonate were not done, but a general preliminary study in rats indicated no effect on these parameters. Although antihistamines have been found to produce fetal mortality in rodents, the pharmacological effects of histamine in the rodent do not parallel those in man. There are no adequate and well controlled studies of promethazine in pregnant women.

Promethazine hydrochloride tablets should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nonteratogenic Effects

Promethazine administered to a pregnant woman within 2 weeks of delivery may inhibit platelet aggregation in the newborn.

Labor and Delivery

Promethazine hydrochloride may be used alone or as an adjunct to narcotic analgesics during labor (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Limited data suggest that use of promethazine hydrochloride during labor and delivery does not have an appreciable effect on the duration of labor or delivery and does not increase the risk of need for intervention in the newborn. The effect on later growth and development of the newborn is unknown. (See also Nonteratogenic Effects.)

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether promethazine hydrochloride is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from promethazine hydrochloride tablets, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS ARE CONTRAINDICATED FOR USE IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS LESS THAN 2 YEARS OF AGE (See WARNINGS: Black Box Warning and Use in Pediatric Patients).

Promethazine hydrochloride tablets should be used with caution in pediatric patients 2 years of age and older (see WARNINGS: Use in Pediatric Patients).

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of promethazine hydrochloride formulations did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Sedating drugs may cause confusion and over sedation in the elderly; elderly patients generally should be started on low doses of promethazine hydrochloride tablets and observed closely.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Central Nervous System: Drowsiness is the most prominent CNS effect of this drug. Sedation, somnolence, blurred vision, dizziness; confusion, disorientation, and extrapyramidal symptoms such as oculogyric crisis, torticollis, and tongue protrusion; lassitude, tinnitus, incoordination, fatigue, euphoria, nervousness, diplopia, insomnia, tremors, convulsive seizures, excitation, catatonic-like states, hysteria. Hallucinations have also been reported.

Cardiovascular: Increased or decreased blood pressure, tachycardia, bradycardia, faintness.

Dermatologic: Dermatitis, photosensitivity, urticaria.

Hematologic: Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, agranulocytosis.

Gastrointestinal: Dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, jaundice.

Respiratory: Asthma, nasal stuffiness, respiratory depression (potentially fatal) and apnea (potentially fatal). (See WARNINGS: Respiratory Depression.)

Other: Angioneurotic edema. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (potentially fatal) has also been reported. (See WARNINGS: Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome.)

Paradoxical Reactions: Hyperexcitability and abnormal movements have been reported in patients following a single administration of promethazine hydrochloride. Consideration should be given to the discontinuation of promethazine hydrochloride and to the use of other drugs if these reactions occur. Respiratory depression, nightmares, delirium, and agitated behavior have also been reported in some of these patients.

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