Propofol (Page 2 of 9)

2.3 Maintenance of General Anesthesia for Patients Greater than or Equal to 2 Months of Age

Propofol injectable emulsion has been used with a variety of agents commonly used in anesthesia such as atropine, scopolamine, glycopyrrolate, diazepam, depolarizing and nondepolarizing muscle relaxants, and opioid analgesics, as well as with inhalational and regional anesthetic agents.

In the elderly, debilitated, or ASA-PS III or IV patients, rapid bolus doses should not be used, as this will increase the likelihood of undesirable cardiorespiratory depression.

Adult Patients

In adults, anesthesia can be maintained by administering propofol injectable emulsion by infusion or intermittent intravenous bolus injection. The patient’s clinical response will determine the infusion rate or the amount and frequency of incremental injections

Continuous Infusion

Propofol injectable emulsion 100 mcg/kg/min to 200 mcg/kg/min administered in a variable rate infusion with 60% to 70% nitrous oxide and oxygen provides anesthesia for patients undergoing general surgery. Maintenance by infusion of propofol injectable emulsion should immediately follow the induction dose in order to provide satisfactory or continuous anesthesia during the induction phase. During this initial period following the induction dose, higher rates of infusion are generally required (150 mcg/kg/min to 200 mcg/kg/min) for the first 10 minutes to 15 minutes. Infusion rates should subsequently be decreased 30% to 50% during the first half-hour of maintenance. Generally, rates of 50 mcg/kg/min to 100 mcg/kg/min in adults should be achieved during maintenance in order to optimize recovery times.

Other drugs that cause CNS depression (hypnotics/sedatives, inhalational anesthetics, and opioids) can increase the CNS depression induced by propofol.

Intermittent Bolus

Increments of propofol injectable emulsion 25 mg (2.5 mL) to 50 mg (5 mL) may be administered in adult patients undergoing general surgery. The incremental boluses should be administered when changes in vital signs indicate a response to surgical stimulation or light anesthesia.

Cardiac Anesthesia

The maintenance dose of propofol in adult cardiac patients should be administered as 25 to 100 mcg/kg/min, and should be adjusted according to the patient’s sedation level and clinical response.

Pediatric Patients

In children greater than or equal to 2 months of age, anesthesia can be maintained by administering propofol injectable emulsion by infusion or intermittent intravenous bolus injection. An initial bolus of between 1 to 4 mg/kg, followed by subsequent administration of smaller aliquots based on patients’ response (0.5 to 2 mg/kg). The patient’s clinical response will determine the infusion rate or the amount and frequency of incremental injections.

Continuous Infusion

Propofol injectable emulsion administered as a variable rate infusion provides satisfactory anesthesia for most children 2 months of age or older, ASA-PS I or II, undergoing general anesthesia.

In general, for the pediatric population, maintenance by infusion of propofol injectable emulsion at a rate of 200 mcg/kg/min to 300 mcg/kg/min should immediately follow the induction dose. Following the first half-hour of maintenance, infusion rates of 125 mcg/kg/min to 150 mcg/kg/min are typically needed. Propofol injectable emulsion should be titrated to achieve the desired clinical effect. Younger pediatric patients may require higher maintenance infusion rates than older pediatric patients [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].

Intermittent Bolus

An initial bolus of 1 to 4 mg/kg should be administered, with additional 0.5 to 2 mg/kg doses as needed. The incremental boluses should be administered when changes in vital signs indicate a response to surgical stimulation or light anesthesia.

2.4 Initiation and Maintenance of Monitored Anesthesia Care (MAC) Sedation in Adult Patients

When propofol injectable emulsion is administered for MAC sedation, rates of administration should be individualized and titrated to clinical response. In most patients, the rates of propofol injectable emulsion administration will be in the range of 25 mcg/kg/min to 75 mcg/kg/min.

During initiation of MAC sedation, slow infusion or slow injection techniques are preferable over rapid bolus administration. During maintenance of MAC sedation, a variable rate infusion is preferable over intermittent bolus dose administration. In the elderly, debilitated, or ASA-PS III or IV patients, rapid (single or repeated) bolus dose administration should not be used for MAC sedation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]. A rapid bolus injection may result in undesirable cardiorespiratory depression.

Initiation of MAC Sedation in Adult Patients

For initiation of MAC sedation, either an infusion or a slow injection method may be utilized while closely monitoring cardiorespiratory function. With the infusion method, sedation may be initiated by infusing propofol injectable emulsion at 100 mcg/kg/min to 150 mcg/kg/min (6 mg/kg/hour to 9 mg/kg/hour) for a period of 3 minutes to 5 minutes and titrating to the desired clinical effect while closely monitoring respiratory function. With the slow injection method for initiation, patients will require approximately 0.5 mg/kg administered over 3 minutes to 5 minutes and titrated to clinical responses. When propofol injectable emulsion is administered slowly over 3 minutes to 5 minutes, most patients will be adequately sedated, and the peak drug effect can be achieved while minimizing undesirable cardiorespiratory effects occurring at high plasma levels.

In the elderly, debilitated, or ASA-PS III or IV patients, rapid (single or repeated) bolus dose administration should not be used for MAC sedation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]. The rate of administration should be over 3 minutes to 5 minutes and the dosage of propofol injectable emulsion should be reduced to approximately 80% of the usual adult dosage in these patients according to their condition, responses, and changes in vital signs.

Maintenance of MAC Sedation in Adult Patients

For maintenance of sedation, a variable rate infusion method is preferable over an intermittent bolus dose method. With the variable rate infusion method, patients will generally require maintenance rates of 25 mcg/kg/min to 75 mcg/kg/min (1.5 mg/kg/hour to 4.5 mg/kg/hour) during the first 10 minutes to 15 minutes of sedation maintenance. Infusion rates should subsequently be decreased over time to 25 mcg/kg/min to 50 mcg/kg/min and adjusted to clinical responses. In titrating to clinical effect, allow approximately 2 minutes for onset of peak drug effect.

Infusion rates should always be titrated downward in the absence of clinical signs of light sedation until mild responses to stimulation are obtained in order to avoid sedative administration of propofol injectable emulsion at rates higher than are clinically necessary.

If the intermittent bolus dose method is used, increments of propofol injectable emulsion 10 mg (1 mL) or 20 mg (2 mL) can be administered and titrated to desired clinical effect. With the intermittent bolus method of sedation maintenance, there is increased potential for respiratory depression, transient increases in sedation depth, and prolongation of recovery.

In the elderly, debilitated, or ASA-PS III or IV patients, rapid (single or repeated) bolus dose administration should not be used for MAC sedation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]. The rate of administration and the dosage of propofol injectable emulsion should be reduced to approximately 80% of the usual adult dosage in these patients according to their condition, responses, and changes in vital signs.

Propofol injectable emulsion can be administered as the sole agent for maintenance of MAC sedation during surgical/diagnostic procedures. When propofol injectable emulsion sedation is supplemented with opioid and/or benzodiazepine medications, these agents increase the sedative and respiratory effects of propofol injectable emulsion and may also result in a slower recovery profile [see Drug Interactions (7)].

2.5 Clinical Responses and Dose Titrations

Changes in vital signs indicating a stress response to surgical stimulation or the emergence from anesthesia may be controlled by the administration of 25 mg (2.5 mL) to 50 mg (5 mL) incremental boluses and/or by increasing the infusion rate of propofol injectable emulsion.

For minor surgical procedures (e.g., body surface) nitrous oxide (60% to 70%) can be combined with a variable rate propofol injectable emulsion infusion to provide satisfactory anesthesia. With more stimulating surgical procedures (e.g., intra- abdominal), or if supplementation with nitrous oxide is not provided, administration rate(s) of propofol injectable emulsion and/or opioids should be increased in order to provide adequate anesthesia.

Infusion rates should always be titrated downward in the absence of clinical signs of light anesthesia in order to avoid administration of propofol injectable emulsion at rates higher than are clinically necessary. Generally, rates of 50 mcg/kg/min to 100 mcg/kg/min in adults should be achieved during maintenance in order to optimize recovery times.

Other drugs that cause CNS depression (hypnotics/sedatives, inhalational anesthetics, and opioids) can increase CNS depression induced by propofol. Morphine premedication (0.15 mg/kg) with nitrous oxide 67% in oxygen has been shown to decrease the necessary propofol injection maintenance infusion rate and therapeutic blood concentrations when compared to non-narcotic (lorazepam) premedication.

Propofol blood concentrations at steady state are generally proportional to infusion rates, especially in individual patients. Undesirable effects such as cardiorespiratory depression are likely to occur at higher blood concentrations which result from bolus dosing or rapid increases in the infusion rate. An adequate interval (3 minutes to 5 minutes) must be allowed between dose adjustments to allow for and assess the clinical effects.

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