In dietary administration studies in which mice and rats were treated with propranolol hydrochloride for up to 18 months at doses of up to 150 mg/kg/day, there was no evidence of drug-related tumorigenesis. On a body surface area basis, this dose in the mouse and rat is, respectively, about equal to and about twice the maximum recommended human oral daily dose (MRHD) of 640 mg propranolol hydrochloride. In a study in which both male and female rats were exposed to propranolol hydrochloride in their diets at concentrations of up to 0.05% (about 50 mg/kg body weight and less than the MRHD), from 60 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation for two generations, there were no effects on fertility. Based on differing results from Ames Tests performed by different laboratories, there is equivocal evidence for a genotoxic effect of propranolol hydrochloride in bacteria ( S. typhimurium strain TA 1538).
In a series of reproductive and developmental toxicology studies, propranolol hydrochloride was given to rats by gavage or in the diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. At doses of 150 mg/kg/day, but not at doses of 80 mg/kg/day (equivalent to the MRHD on a body surface area basis), treatment was associated with embryotoxicity (reduced litter size and increased resorption rates) as well as neonatal toxicity (deaths). Propranolol hydrochloride also was administered (in the feed) to rabbits (throughout pregnancy and lactation) at doses as high as 150 mg/kg/day (about 5 times the maximum recommended human oral daily dose). No evidence of embryo or neonatal toxicity was noted.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Intrauterine growth retardation, small placentas, and congenital abnormalities have been reported in neonates whose mothers received propranolol during pregnancy. Neonates whose mothers received propranolol at parturition have exhibited bradycardia, hypoglycemia, and/or respiratory depression. Adequate facilities for monitoring such infants at birth should be available. Propranolol should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Propranolol is excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when propranolol is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness of propranolol in pediatric patients have not been established.
Bronchospasm and congestive heart failure have been reported coincident with the administration of propranolol therapy in pediatric patients.
Clinical studies of propranolol did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
The following adverse events were observed and have been reported in patients using propranolol.
Cardiovascular: Bradycardia; congestive heart failure; intensification of AV block; hypotension; paresthesia of hands; thrombocytopenic purpura; arterial insufficiency, usually of the Raynaud type.
Central Nervous System: Light-headedness, mental depression manifested by insomnia, lassitude, weakness, fatigue; catatonia; visual disturbances; hallucinations; vivid dreams; an acute reversible syndrome characterized by disorientation for time and place, short-term memory loss, emotional lability, slightly clouded sensorium, and decreased performance on neuropsychometrics. For immediate-release formulations, fatigue, lethargy, and vivid dreams appear dose-related.
Gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting, epigastric distress, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, constipation, mesenteric arterial thrombosis, ischemic colitis.
Allergic: Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions, pharyngitis and agranulocytosis; erythematous rash, fever combined with aching and sore throat; laryngospasm, and respiratory distress.
Hematologic: Agranulocytosis, nonthrombocytopenic purpura, thrombocytopenic purpura.
Autoimmune: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Skin and mucous membranes: Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, dry eyes, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, urticaria, alopecia, SLE-like reactions, and psoriasiform rashes. Oculomucocutaneous syndrome involving the skin, serous membranes and conjunctivae reported for a beta blocker (practolol) have not been associated with propranolol.
Genitourinary: Male impotence; Peyronie’s disease.
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE EVENTS, contact Actavis at 1-800-272-5525 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or http://www.fda.gov/ for voluntary reporting of adverse reactions.
Propranolol is not significantly dialyzable. In the event of overdosage or exaggerated response, the following measures should be employed:
General: If ingestion is or may have been recent, evacuate gastric contents, taking care to prevent pulmonary aspiration.
Supportive Therapy: Hypotension and bradycardia have been reported following propranolol overdose and should be treated appropriately. Glucagon can exert potent inotropic and chronotropic effects and may be particularly useful for the treatment of hypotension or depressed myocardial function after a propranolol overdose. Glucagon should be administered as 50 to 150 mcg/kg intravenously followed by continuous drip of 1 to 5 mg/hour for positive chronotropic effect. Isoproterenol, dopamine or phosphodiesterase inhibitors may also be useful. Epinephrine, however, may provoke uncontrolled hypertension. Bradycardia can be treated with atropine or isoproterenol. Serious bradycardia may require temporary cardiac pacing.
The electrocardiogram, pulse, blood pressure, neurobehavioral status and intake and output balance must be monitored. Isoproterenol and aminophylline may be used for bronchospasm.
Because of the variable bioavailability of propranolol, the dose should be individualized based on response.
The usual initial dosage is 40 mg propranolol hydrochloride twice daily, whether used alone or added to a diuretic. Dosage may be increased gradually until adequate blood pressure control is achieved. The usual maintenance dosage is 120 mg to 240 mg per day. In some instances a dosage of 640 mg a day may be required. The time needed for full antihypertensive response to a given dosage is variable and may range from a few days to several weeks.
While twice-daily dosing is effective and can maintain a reduction in blood pressure throughout the day, some patients, especially when lower doses are used, may experience a modest rise in blood pressure toward the end of the 12-hour dosing interval. This can be evaluated by measuring blood pressure near the end of the dosing interval to determine whether satisfactory control is being maintained throughout the day. If control is not adequate, a larger dose, or 3-times-daily therapy may achieve better control.
Total daily doses of 80 mg to 320 mg propranolol hydrochloride, when administered orally, twice a day, three times a day, or four times a day, have been shown to increase exercise tolerance and to reduce ischemic changes in the ECG. If treatment is to be discontinued, reduce dosage gradually over a period of several weeks. (See WARNINGS.)
The recommended dose is 10 mg to 30 mg propranolol hydrochloride three or four times daily before meals and at bedtime.
In the Beta-Blocker Heart Attack Trial (BHAT), the initial dose was 40 mg three times a day, with titration after 1 month to 60 mg to 80 mg three times a day as tolerated. The recommended daily dosage is 180 mg to 240 mg propranolol hydrochloride per day in divided doses. Although a three times a day regimen was used in the BHAT and a four times a day regimen in the Norwegian Multicenter Trial, there is a reasonable basis for the use of either a three times a day or twice daily regimen (see PHARMACODYNAMICSAND CLINICAL EFFECTS). The effectiveness and safety of daily dosages greater than 240 mg for prevention of cardiac mortality have not been established. However, higher dosages may be needed to effectively treat coexisting diseases such as angina or hypertension (see above).
The initial dose is 80 mg propranolol hydrochloride daily in divided doses. The usual effective dose range is 160 mg to 240 mg per day. The dosage may be increased gradually to achieve optimum migraine prophylaxis. If a satisfactory response is not obtained within four to six weeks after reaching the maximum dose, propranolol therapy should be discontinued. It may be advisable to withdraw the drug gradually over a period of several weeks.
The initial dosage is 40 mg propranolol hydrochloride twice daily. Optimum reduction of essential tremor is usually achieved with a dose of 120 mg per day. Occasionally, it may be necessary to administer 240 mg to 320 mg per day.
Hypertrophic Subaortic Stenosis
The usual dosage is 20 mg to 40 mg propranolol hydrochloride three or four times daily before meals and at bedtime.
The usual dosage is 60 mg propranolol hydrochloride daily in divided doses for three days prior to surgery as adjunctive therapy to alpha-adrenergic blockade. For the management of inoperable tumors, the usual dosage is 30 mg daily in divided doses as adjunctive therapy to alpha-adrenergic blockade.
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