Interactions with Substrates, Inhibitors or Inducers of Cytochrome P-450 Enzymes
Because propranolol’s metabolism involves multiple pathways in the cytochrome P-450 system (CYP2D6, 1A2, 2C19), coadministration with drugs that are metabolized by, or effect the activity (induction or inhibition) of one or more of these pathways may lead to clinically relevant drug interactions (see Drug Interactions under PRECAUTIONS).
Substrates or Inhibitors of CYP2D6
Blood levels and/or toxicity of propranolol may be increased by coadministration with substrates or inhibitors of CYP2D6, such as amiodarone, cimetidine, delavudin, fluoxetine, paroxetine, quinidine, and ritonavir. No interactions were observed with either ranitidine or lansoprazole.
Substrates or Inhibitors of CYP1A2
Blood levels and/or toxicity of propranolol may be increased by coadministration with substrates or inhibitors of CYP1A2, such as imipramine, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, fluvoxamine, isoniazid, ritonavir, theophylline, zileuton, zolmitriptan, and rizatriptan.
Substrates or Inhibitors of CYP2C19
Blood levels and/or toxicity of propranolol may be increased by coadministration with substrates or inhibitors of CYP2C19, such as fluconazole, cimetidine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, teniposide, and tolbutamide. No interaction was observed with omeprazole.
Inducers of Hepatic Drug Metabolism
Blood levels of propranolol may be decreased by coadministration with inducers such as rifampin, ethanol, phenytoin, and phenobarbital. Cigarette smoking also induces hepatic metabolism and has been shown to increase up to 77% the clearance of propranolol, resulting in decreased plasma concentrations.
The AUC of propafenone is increased by more than 200% by coadministration of propranolol. The metabolism of propranolol is reduced by coadministration of quinidine, leading to a 2 to 3 fold increased blood concentration and greater degrees of clinical beta-blockade. The metabolism of lidocaine is inhibited by coadministration of propranolol, resulting in a 25% increase in lidocaine concentrations.
Calcium Channel Blockers
The mean Cmax and AUC of propranolol are increased, respectively, by 50% and 30% by coadministration of nisoldipine and by 80% and 47%, by coadministration of nicardipine. The mean Cmax and AUC of nifedipine are increased by 64% and 79%, respectively, by coadministration of propranolol. Propranolol does not affect the pharmacokinetics of verapamil and norverapamil. Verapamil does not affect the pharmacokinetics of propranolol.
Administration of zolmitriptan or rizatriptan with propranolol resulted in increased concentrations of zolmitriptan (AUC increased by 56% and Cmax by 37%) or rizatriptan (the AUC and Cmax were increased by 67% and 75%, respectively).
Coadministration of theophylline with propranolol decreases theophylline oral clearance by 30% to 52%.
Propranolol can inhibit the metabolism of diazepam, resulting in increased concentrations of diazepam and its metabolites. Diazepam does not alter the pharmacokinetics of propranolol. The pharmacokinetics of oxazepam, triazolam, lorazepam, and alprazolam are not affected by coadministration of propranolol.
Coadministration of long-acting propranolol at doses greater than or equal to 160 mg/day resulted in increased thioridazine plasma concentrations ranging from 55% to 369% and increased thioridazine metabolite (mesoridazine) concentrations ranging from 33% to 209%. Coadministration of chlorpromazine with propranolol resulted in a 70% increase in propranolol plasma level.
Coadministration of propranolol with cimetidine, a nonspecific CYP450 inhibitor, increased propranolol AUC and Cmax by 46% and 35%, respectively. Coadministration with aluminum hydroxide gel (1200 mg) may result in a decrease in propranolol concentrations.
Coadministration of metoclopramide with the long-acting propranolol did not have a significant effect on propranolol’s pharmacokinetics.
Lipid Lowering Drugs
Coadministration of cholestyramine or colestipol with propranolol resulted in up to 50% decrease in propranolol concentrations.
Coadministration of propranolol with lovastatin or pravastatin, decreased 18% to 23% the AUC of both, but did not alter their pharmacodynamics. Propranolol did not have an effect on the pharmacokinetics of fluvastatin.
Concomitant administration of propranolol and warfarin has been shown to increase warfarin bioavailability and increase prothrombin time.
Concomitant use of alcohol may increase plasma levels of propranolol.
In a retrospective, uncontrolled study, 107 patients with diastolic blood pressure 110 to 150 mmHg received propranolol 120 mg t.i.d. for at least 6 months, in addition to diuretics and potassium, but with no other antihypertensive agent. Propranolol contributed to control of diastolic blood pressure, but the magnitude of the effect of propranolol on blood pressure cannot be ascertained.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 32 patients of both sexes, aged 32 to 69 years, with stable angina, propranolol 100 mg t.i.d. was administered for 4 weeks and shown to be more effective than placebo in reducing the rate of angina episodes and in prolonging total exercise time.
In a report examining the long-term (5 to 22 months) efficacy of propranolol, 10 patients, aged 27 to 80, with atrial fibrillation and ventricular rate > 120 beats per minute despite digitalis, received propranolol up to 30 mg t.i.d. Seven patients (70%) achieved ventricular rate reduction to < 100 beats per minute.
The Beta-Blocker Heart Attack Trial (BHAT) was a National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute-sponsored multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 31 U.S. centers (plus one in Canada) in 3,837 persons without history of severe congestive heart failure or presence of recent heart failure; certain conduction defects; angina since infarction, who had survived the acute phase of myocardial infarction. Propranolol was administered at either 60 or 80 mg t.i.d. based on blood levels achieved during an initial trial of 40 mg t.i.d. Therapy with propranolol hydrochloride, begun 5 to 21 days following infarction, was shown to reduce overall mortality up to 39 months, the longest period of follow-up. This was primarily attributable to a reduction in cardiovascular mortality. The protective effect of propranolol hydrochloride was consistent regardless of age, sex, or site of infarction. Compared with placebo, total mortality was reduced 39% at 12 months and 26% over an average follow-up period of 25 months. The Norwegian Multicenter Trial in which propranolol was administered at 40 mg q.i.d. gave overall results which support the findings in the BHAT.
Although the clinical trials used either t.i.d. or q.i.d. dosing, clinical, pharmacologic, and pharmacokinetic data provide a reasonable basis for concluding that b.i.d. dosing with propranolol should be adequate in the treatment of postinfarction patients.
In a 34 week, placebo-controlled, 4 period, dose-finding crossover study with a double-blind randomized treatment sequence, 62 patients with migraine received propranolol 20 to 80 mg 3 or 4 times daily. The headache unit index, a composite of the number of days with headache and the associated severity of the headache, was significantly reduced for patients receiving propranolol as compared to those on placebo.
In a 2 week, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study of 9 patients with essential or familial tremor, propranolol, at a dose titrated as needed from 40 to 80 mg t.i.d. reduced tremor severity compared to placebo.
In an uncontrolled series of 13 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class 2 or 3 symptoms and hypertrophic subaortic stenosis diagnosed at cardiac catheterization, oral propranolol 40 to 80 mg t.i.d. was administered and patients were followed for up to 17 months. Propranolol was associated with improved NYHA class for most patients.
In an uncontrolled series of 3 patients with norepinephrine-secreting pheochromocytoma who were pretreated with an alpha adrenergic blocker (prazosin), perioperative use of propranolol at doses of 40 to 80 mg t.i.d. resulted in symptomatic blood pressure control.
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