Propranolol Hydrochloride (Page 3 of 6)

Atrial Fibrillation

In a report examining the long-term (5-22 months) efficacy of propranolol, 10 patients, aged 27 to 80, with atrial fibrillation and ventricular rate >120 beats per minute despite digitalis, received propranolol up to 30 mg t.i.d. Seven patients (70%) achieved ventricular rate reduction to <100 beats per minute.

Myocardial Infarction

The Beta-Blocker Heart Attack Trial (BHAT) was a National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute-sponsored multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 31 U.S. centers (plus one in Canada) in 3,837 persons without history of severe congestive heart failure or presence of recent heart failure; certain conduction defects; angina since infarction, who had survived the acute phase of myocardial infarction. Propranolol was administered at either 60 or 80 mg t.i.d. based on blood levels achieved during an initial trial of 40 mg t.i.d. Therapy with propranolol, begun 5 to 21 days following infarction, was shown to reduce overall mortality up to 39 months, the longest period of follow-up. This was primarily attributable to a reduction in cardiovascular mortality. The protective effect of propranolol was consistent regardless of age, sex, or site of infarction. Compared with placebo, total mortality was reduced 39% at 12 months and 26% over an average follow-up period of 25 months. The Norwegian Multicenter Trial in which propranolol was administered at 40 mg q.i.d. gave overall results which support the findings in the BHAT.

Although the clinical trials used either t.i.d. or q.i.d. dosing, clinical, pharmacologic, and pharmacokinetic data provide a reasonable basis for concluding that b.i.d. dosing with propranolol should be adequate in the treatment of postinfarction patients.

Migraine

In a 34-week, placebo-controlled, 4-period, dose-finding crossover study with a double-blind randomized treatment sequence, 62 patients with migraine received propranolol 20 to 80 mg 3 or 4 times daily. The headache unit index, a composite of the number of days with headache and the associated severity of the headache, was significantly reduced for patients receiving propranolol as compared to those on placebo.

Essential Tremor

In a 2 week, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study of 9 patients with essential or familial tremor, propranolol, at a dose titrated as needed from 40-80 mg t.i.d. reduced tremor severity compared to placebo.

Hypertrophic Subaortic Stenosis

In an uncontrolled series of 13 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class 2 or 3 symptoms and hypertrophic subaortic stenosis diagnosed at cardiac catheterization, oral propranolol 40-80 mg t.i.d. was administered and patients were followed for up to 17 months. Propranolol was associated with improved NYHA class for most patients.

Pheochromocytoma

In an uncontrolled series of 3 patients with norepinephrine-secreting pheochromocytoma who were pretreated with an alpha adrenergic blocker (prazosin), perioperative use of propranolol at doses of 40-80 mg t.i.d. resulted in symptomatic blood pressure control.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Hypertension

Propranolol hydrochloride tablets, USP are indicated in the management of hypertension. It may be used alone or used in combination with other antihypertensive agents, particularly a thiazide diuretic. Propranolol hydrochloride tablets, USP are not indicated in the management of hypertensive emergencies.

Angina Pectoris Due to Coronary Atherosclerosis

Propranolol hydrochloride tablets, USP are indicated to decrease angina frequency and increase exercise tolerance in patients with angina pectoris.

Atrial Fibrillation

Propranolol hydrochloride tablets, USP are indicated to control ventricular rate in patients with atrial fibrillation and a rapid ventricular response.

Myocardial Infarction

Propranolol hydrochloride tablets, USP are indicated to reduce cardiovascular mortality in patients who have survived the acute phase of myocardial infarction and are clinically stable.

Migraine

Propranolol hydrochloride tablets, USP are indicated for the prophylaxis of common migraine headache. The efficacy of propranolol in the treatment of a migraine attack that has started has not been established, and propranolol is not indicated for such use.

Essential Tremor

Propranolol hydrochloride tablets, USP are indicated in the management of familial or hereditary essential tremor. Familial or essential tremor consists of involuntary, rhythmic, oscillatory movements, usually limited to the upper limbs. It is absent at rest, but occurs when the limb is held in a fixed posture or position against gravity and during active movement. Propranolol hydrochloride tablets, USP cause a reduction in the tremor amplitude, but not in the tremor frequency. Propranolol hydrochloride tablets, USP are not indicated for the treatment of tremor associated with Parkinsonism.

Hypertrophic Subaortic Stenosis

Propranolol hydrochloride tablets, USP improve NYHA functional class in symptomatic patients with hypertrophic subaortic stenosis.

Pheochromocytoma

Propranolol hydrochloride tablets, USP are indicated as an adjunct to alpha-adrenergic blockade to control blood pressure and reduce symptoms of catecholamine-secreting tumors.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Propranolol is contraindicated in 1) cardiogenic shock; 2) sinus bradycardia and greater than first degree block; 3) bronchial asthma; and 4) in patients with known hypersensitivity to propranolol hydrochloride.

WARNINGS

Angina Pectoris

There have been reports of exacerbation of angina and, in some cases, myocardial infarction, following abrupt discontinuance of propranolol therapy. Therefore, when discontinuance of propranolol is planned, the dosage should be gradually reduced over at least a few weeks and the patient should be cautioned against interruption or cessation of therapy without the physician’s advice. If propranolol therapy is interrupted and exacerbation of angina occurs, it usually is advisable to reinstitute propranolol therapy and take other measures appropriate for the management of angina pectoris. Since coronary artery disease may be unrecognized, it may be prudent to follow the above advice in patients considered at risk of having occult atherosclerotic heart disease who are given propranolol for other indications.

Hypersensitivity and Skin Reactions

Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions, have been associated with the administration of propranolol (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

Cutaneous reactions, including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, and urticaria, have been reported with use of propranolol (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

Cardiac Failure

Sympathetic stimulation may be a vital component supporting circulatory function in patients with congestive heart failure, and its inhibition by beta blockade may precipitate more severe failure. Although beta blockers should be avoided in overt congestive heart failure, some have been shown to be highly beneficial when used with close follow-up in patients with a history of failure who are well compensated and are receiving additional therapies, including diuretics as needed. Beta-adrenergic blocking agents do not abolish the inotropic action of digitalis on heart muscle.

In Patients without a History of Heart Failure, continued use of beta blockers can, in some cases, lead to cardiac failure.

Nonallergic Bronchospasm (e.g., Chronic Bronchitis, Emphysema)

In general, patients with bronchospastic lung disease should not receive beta blockers. Propranolol should be administered with caution in this setting since it may provoke a bronchial asthmatic attack by blocking bronchodilation produced by endogenous and exogenous catecholamine stimulation of beta-receptors.

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