In a study of 9 healthy women and 12 healthy men, neither the administration of testosterone nor the regular course of the menstrual cycle affected the plasma binding of the propranolol enantiomers. In contrast, there was a significant, although non-enantioselective diminution of the binding of propranolol after treatment with ethinyl estradiol. These findings are inconsistent with another study, in which administration of testosterone cypionate confirmed the stimulatory role of this hormone on propranolol metabolism and concluded that the clearance of propranolol in men is dependent on circulating concentrations of testosterone. In women, none of the metabolic clearances for propranolol showed any significant association with either estradiol or testosterone.
A study conducted in 12 Caucasian and 13 African-American male subjects taking propranolol, showed that at steady state, the clearance of R(+)- and S(–)-propranolol were about 76% and 53% higher in African-Americans than in Caucasians, respectively.
Chinese subjects had a greater proportion (18% to 45% higher) of unbound propranolol in plasma compared to Caucasians, which was associated with a lower plasma concentration of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein.
The pharmacokinetics of Propranolol Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules, USP, have not been investigated in patients with renal insufficiency.
In a study conducted in 5 patients with chronic renal failure, 6 patients on regular dialysis, and 5 healthy subjects, who received a single oral dose of 40 mg of propranolol, the peak plasma concentrations (Cmax ) of propranolol in the chronic renal failure group were 2 to 3-fold higher (161±41 ng/mL) than those observed in the dialysis patients (47±9 ng/mL) and in the healthy subjects (26±1 ng/mL). Propranolol plasma clearance was also reduced in the patients with chronic renal failure.
Studies have reported a delayed absorption rate and a reduced half-life of propranolol in patients with renal failure of varying severity. Despite this shorter plasma half-life, propranolol peak plasma levels were 3-4 times higher and total plasma levels of metabolites were up to 3 times higher in these patients than in subjects with normal renal function.
Chronic renal failure has been associated with a decrease in drug metabolism via down regulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 activity resulting in a lower “first-pass” clearance.
Propranolol is not significantly dialyzable.
The pharmacokinetics of Propranolol Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules, USP, have not been investigated in patients with hepatic insufficiency.
Propranolol is extensively metabolized by the liver. In a study conducted in 6 patients with cirrhosis and 7 healthy subjects receiving 160 mg of a long-acting preparation of propranolol once a day for 7 days, the steady-state propranolol concentration in patients with cirrhosis was increased 2.5-fold in comparison to controls. In the patients with cirrhosis, the half-life obtained after a single intravenous dose of 10 mg propranolol increased to 7.2 hours compared to 2.9 hours in control (see PRECAUTIONS).
All drug interaction studies were conducted with propranolol. There are no data on drug interactions with Propranolol Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules, USP.
Because propranolol’s metabolism involves multiple pathways in the Cytochrome P-450 system (CYP2D6, 1A2, 2C19), co-administration with drugs that are metabolized by, or affect the activity (induction or inhibition) of one or more of these pathways may lead to clinically relevant drug interactions (see Drug Interactions under PRECAUTIONS).
Blood levels and/or toxicity of propranolol may be increased by co-administration with substrates or inhibitors of CYP2D6, such as amiodarone, cimetidine, delavudin, fluoxetine, paroxetine, quinidine, and ritonavir. No interactions were observed with either ranitidine or lansoprazole.
Blood levels and/or toxicity of propranolol may be increased by co-administration with substrates or inhibitors of CYP1A2, such as imipramine, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, fluvoxamine, isoniazid, ritonavir, theophylline, zileuton, zolmitriptan, and rizatriptan.
Blood levels and/or toxicity of propranolol may be increased by co-administration with substrates or inhibitors of CYP2C19, such as fluconazole, cimetidine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, teniposide, and tolbutamide. No interaction was observed with omeprazole.
Blood levels of propranolol may be decreased by co-administration with inducers such as rifampin, ethanol, phenytoin, and phenobarbital. Cigarette smoking also induces hepatic metabolism and has been shown to increase up to 77% the clearance of propranolol, resulting in decreased plasma concentrations.
The AUC of propafenone is increased by more than 200% by co-administration of propranolol.
The metabolism of propranolol is reduced by co-administration of quinidine, leading to a two to three fold increased blood concentration and greater degrees of clinical beta-blockade.
The metabolism of lidocaine is inhibited by co-administration of propranolol, resulting in a 25% increase in lidocaine concentrations.
The mean Cmax and AUC of propranolol are increased respectively, by 50% and 30% by co-administration of nisoldipine and by 80% and 47%, by co-administration of nicardipine.
The mean Cmax and AUC of nifedipine are increased by 64% and 79%, respectively, by co-administration of propranolol.
Propranolol does not affect the pharmacokinetics of verapamil and norverapamil. Verapamil does not affect the pharmacokinetics of propranolol.
Administration of zolmitriptan or rizatriptan with propranolol resulted in increased concentrations of zolmitriptan (AUC increased by 56% and Cmax by 37%) or rizatriptan (the AUC and Cmax were increased by 67% and 75%, respectively).
Co-administration of theophylline with propranolol decreases theophylline oral clearance by 30% to 52%.
Propranolol can inhibit the metabolism of diazepam, resulting in increased concentrations of diazepam and its metabolites.
Diazepam does not alter the pharmacokinetics of propranolol.
The pharmacokinetics of oxazepam, triazolam, lorazepam, and alprazolam are not affected by co-administration of propranolol.
Co-administration of long-acting propranolol at doses greater than or equal to 160 mg/day resulted in increased thioridazine plasma concentrations ranging from 55% to 369% and increased thioridazine metabolite (mesoridazine) concentrations ranging from 33% to 209%.
Co-administration of chlorpromazine with propranolol resulted in a 70% increase in propranolol plasma level.
Co-administration of propranolol with cimetidine, a non-specific CYP450 inhibitor, increased propranolol AUC and Cmax by 46% and 35%, respectively. Co-administration with aluminum hydroxide gel (1200 mg) may result in a decrease in propranolol concentrations.
Co-administration of metoclopramide with the long-acting propranolol did not have a significant effect on propranolol’s pharmacokinetics.
Co-administration of cholestyramine or colestipol with propranolol resulted in up to 50% decrease in propranolol concentrations.
Co-administration of propranolol with lovastatin or pravastatin, decreased 18% to 23% the AUC of both, but did not alter their pharmacodynamics. Propranolol did not have an effect on the pharmacokinetics of fluvastatin.
Concomitant administration of propranolol and warfarin has been shown to increase warfarin bioavailability and increase prothrombin time.
In a retrospective, uncontrolled study, 107 patients with diastolic blood pressure 110 to 150 mm Hg received propranolol 120 mg t.i.d. for at least 6 months, in addition to diuretics and potassium, but with no other hypertensive agent. Propranolol contributed to control of diastolic blood pressure, but the magnitude of the effect of propranolol on blood pressure cannot be ascertained.
Four double-blind, randomized, crossover studies were conducted in a total of 74 patients with mild or moderately severe hypertension treated with Propranolol Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules, USP, 160 mg once daily or propranolol 160 mg given either once daily or in two 80 mg doses. Three of these studies were conducted over a 4-week treatment period. One study was assessed after a 24-hour period. Propranolol Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules, USP, were as effective as propranolol in controlling hypertension (pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) in each of these trials.
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