Pylera

PYLERA — bismuth subcitrate potassium, metronidazole and tetracycline hydrochloride capsule
Physicians Total Care, Inc.

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of PYLERA and other antibacterial drugs, PYLERA should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

1.1 Eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Patients with Active Duodenal Ulcer or History of Duodenal Ulcer Disease

PYLERA in combination with omeprazole are indicated for the treatment of patients with Helicobacter pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease (active or history of within the past 5 years) to eradicate H. pylori. The eradication of Helicobacter pylori has been shown to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Each dose of PYLERA is 3 capsules. Each dose of all 3 capsules should be taken 4 times a day, after meals and at bedtime for 10 days. One omeprazole 20 mg capsule should be taken twice a day with PYLERA after the morning and evening meal for 10 days (Table 1).

Table 1: Daily Dosing Schedule for PYLERA
Time of dose Number of capsules of PYLERA Number of capsules of Omeprazole 20 mg
After morning meal 3 1
After lunch 3 0
After evening meal 3 1
At bedtime 3 0

Instruct patients to swallow the PYLERA capsules whole with a full glass of water (8 ounces). Ingestion of adequate amounts of fluid, particularly with the bedtime dose, is recommended to reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration by tetracycline hydrochloride.

If a dose is missed, patients should continue the normal dosing schedule until medication is gone. Patients should not take double doses. If more than 4 doses are missed, the prescriber should be contacted.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Each PYLERA capsule contains 140 mg of bismuth subcitrate potassium, 125 mg of metronidazole, and a smaller capsule inside containing 125 mg of tetracycline hydrochloride. The capsules are white and opaque, with the Axcan Pharma logo printed on the body and “BMT” printed on the cap.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

4.1 Methoxyflurane

Do not administer methoxyflurane to patients taking PYLERA. The concurrent use of tetracycline hydrochloride, a component of PYLERA, with methoxyflurane has been reported to result in fatal renal toxicity [See Drug Interactions (7.1)].

4.2 Disulfiram

PYLERA is contraindicated in patients who have taken disulfiram within the last two weeks. Psychotic reactions have been reported in alcoholic patients who are using metronidazole, a component of PYLERA, and disulfiram concurrently [See Drug Interactions (7.2)].

4.3 Alcohol

Alcoholic beverages or other products containing propylene glycol should not be consumed during and for at least 3 days after therapy with PYLERA. A disulfiram-like reaction (abdomincal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headaches, and flushing) may occur due to the interaction between alcohol or propylene glycol and metronidazole, a component of PYLERA [See Drug Interactions (7.3].

4.4 Renal Impairment

PYLERA is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment. The antianabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) [See Adverse Reactions (6.3)]. In patients with significantly impaired renal function, higher serum concentrations of tetracyclines may lead to azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acidosis.

4.5 Hypersensitivity Reactions

PYLERA is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity (e.g. urticaria, erythematous rash, flushing, and fever) to bismuth subcitrate potassium, metronidazole or other nitroimidazole derivatives, or tetracycline [See Adverse Reactions (6.3)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Fetal Toxicity

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of PYLERA in pregnant women. However, tetracycline can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant women. The use of drugs of the tetracycline class during the second and third trimester pregnancy can also cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray brown) and possibly inhibit bone development [See Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Administration of oral tetracycline to pregnant rats at various doses resulted in yellow fluorescence in teeth and bones in newborn animals. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus [See Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]

5.2 Maternal Toxicity

Tetracycline administered during pregnancy at high doses (> 2 g IV) was associated with rare but serious cases of maternal hepatotoxicity. This syndrome may result in stillborn or premature birth due to maternal pathology [See Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].

5.3 Tooth Enamel Discoloration and Hypoplasia

The use of drugs of the tetracycline class during tooth development (last half of pregnancy, infancy, and childhood to the age of 8 years) may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray brown). This adverse reaction is more commom during long-term use of the drug, but has been observed following repeated short-courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. PYLERA, therefore, should not be used in this age group unless other drugs are not likely to be effective or are contraindicated [See Use in Specific Populations (8.4)] .

5.4 Central and Peripheral Nervous System Effects

Metronidazole: Cases of encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy (including optic neuropathy) have been reported with metronidazole: Encephalopathy has been reported in association with cerebellar toxicity characterized by ataxia, dizziness, and dysarthria. CNS lesions seen on MRI have been described in reports of encephalopathy. CNS symptoms are generally reversible within days to weeks upon discontinuation of metronidazole. CNS lesions seen on MRI have also been described as reversible; Peripheral neuropathy, mainly of sensory type has been reported and is characterized by numbness or paresthesia of an extremity.

Convulsive seizures have been reported in patients treated with metronidazole.

Aseptic meningitis: Cases of aseptic meningitis have been reported with metronidazole. Symptoms can occur within hours of dose adiminstration and generally resolve after metronidazole therapy is discontinued.

Tetracycline: Cases of pseudotumor cerebri in adults have been associated with the use of tetracycline. The usual clinical manifestations are headache and blurred vision. While this condition and related symptoms usually resolve soon after discontinuation of the tetracycline, the possibility for permanent sequelae exists.

Bismuth-containing products: Cases of neurotoxicity associated with excessive doses of various bismuth-containing products have been reported. Effects have been reversible with discontinuation of bismuth therapy.

The appearance of abnormal neurologic signs and symptoms demands the prompt evaluation of the benefit/risk ratio of the continuation of PYLERA therapy [See Adverse Reactions (6.3)]

5.5 Development of Superinfections

Known or previously unrecognized candidiasis may present more prominent symptoms during therapy with metronidazole and requires treatment with an antifungal agent.

As with other antibiotics, use of tetracycline hydrochloride may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, discontinue PYLERA and institute appropriate therapy

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